8 research outputs found

    Development of Regional Human Rights Regime in Asia: Defining the Challenges

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    This study analyses the progress made toward establishing a cohesive regional human rights framework in Asia while identifying key obstacles that hinder its evolution. It also explores the intricate nature of constructing a unified structure for human rights in the region through a comprehensive examination of historical, cultural, political, and economic elements. The examination of current mechanisms such as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) and the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Asian Human Rights Declaration highlights both the constraints and potential avenues for advancement. The study posits that a collaborative approach, involving regional organizations, civil society, and international collaboration, is crucial despite historical legacies, cultural differences, and economic paradoxes. The significance of addressing these challenges is highlighted by the potential advantages of establishing a unified human rights regime, which encompasses regional stability and the safeguarding of individual rights. The imperative of promoting a transformative human rights framework in Asia necessitates the maintenance of an inclusive dialogue among stakeholders moving forward

    A Novel Framework for Mixed Reality–Based Control of Collaborative Robot: Development Study

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    Background: Applications of robotics in daily life are becoming essential by creating new possibilities in different fields, especially in the collaborative environment. The potentials of collaborative robots are tremendous as they can work in the same workspace as humans. A framework employing a top-notch technology for collaborative robots will surely be worthwhile for further research. Objective: This study aims to present the development of a novel framework for the collaborative robot using mixed reality. Methods: The framework uses Unity and Unity Hub as a cross-platform gaming engine and project management tool to design the mixed reality interface and digital twin. It also uses the Windows Mixed Reality platform to show digital materials on holographic display and the Azure mixed reality services to capture and expose digital information. Eventually, it uses a holographic device (HoloLens 2) to execute the mixed reality–based collaborative system. Results: A thorough experiment was conducted to validate the novel framework for mixed reality–based control of a collaborative robot. This framework was successfully applied to implement a collaborative system using a 5–degree of freedom robot (xArm-5) in a mixed reality environment. The framework was stable and worked smoothly throughout the collaborative session. Due to the distributed nature of cloud applications, there is a negligible latency between giving a command and the execution of the physical collaborative robot. Conclusions: Opportunities for collaborative robots in telerehabilitation and teleoperation are vital as in any other field. The proposed framework was successfully applied in a collaborative session, and it can also be applied in other similar potential applications for robust and more promising performance

    Control of a Wheelchair-Mounted 6DOF Assistive Robot With Chin and Finger Joysticks

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    Throughout the last decade, many assistive robots for people with disabilities have been developed; however, researchers have not fully utilized these robotic technologies to entirely create independent living conditions for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs). An assistive system can help satisfy the demands of regular ADLs for people with disabilities. With an increasing shortage of caregivers and a growing number of individuals with impairments and the elderly, assistive robots can help meet future healthcare demands. One of the critical aspects of designing these assistive devices is to improve functional independence while providing an excellent human–machine interface. People with limited upper limb function due to stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and other conditions find the controls of assistive devices such as power wheelchairs difficult to use. Thus, the objective of this research was to design a multimodal control method for robotic self-assistance that could assist individuals with disabilities in performing self-care tasks on a daily basis. In this research, a control framework for two interchangeable operating modes with a finger joystick and a chin joystick is developed where joysticks seamlessly control a wheelchair and a wheelchair-mounted robotic arm. Custom circuitry was developed to complete the control architecture. A user study was conducted to test the robotic system. Ten healthy individuals agreed to perform three tasks using both (chin and finger) joysticks for a total of six tasks with 10 repetitions each. The control method has been tested rigorously, maneuvering the robot at different velocities and under varying payload (1–3.5 lb) conditions. The absolute position accuracy was experimentally found to be approximately 5 mm. The round-trip delay we observed between the commands while controlling the xArm was 4 ms. Tests performed showed that the proposed control system allowed individuals to perform some ADLs such as picking up and placing items with a completion time of less than 1 min for each task and 100% success

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Fatalistic Views and the Impact on Combating COVID-19: Bangladesh Context

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    Purpose: The main objective of this study is to evaluate whether the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced the people of Bangladesh to become more fatalistic or not. Approach/Methodology/Design: The study is of a descriptive design. The study follows a mixed-method research approach where an online survey was conducted among 406 individuals and 15 interviews of experts in different criteria have been assembled to validate the survey results properly. This survey data were analyzed based on the age and economic condition of the respondents. The in-depth interviews were collected based on six categories: Academicians, religious scholars, medical practitioners, Coronavirus-infected individuals, law enforcement officials, and journalists. Findings: The study shows that most of the people of Bangladesh are not influenced by the fatalistic views. The COVID-19 pandemic has certainly made people more dependent on fate lately. Senior citizens of the society and people with low income are more fatalists than other groups of people in the society. Senior citizens are suffering the most from anxiety, youths of Bangladesh are facing the most uncertainty in this pandemic. None of the population groups are completely dependent on fate yet confident about the situation at the same time. Practical Implications: The findings of this study will pave the way forward for further research in this area and help policymakers to take necessary initiatives. In short term, it will help formulating policies for the vulnerable groups. Such as, providing economic assistance for the lowest range of income group, guaranteeing old age pension for the senior citizens, access to right information, and psychological stability. In long term, this study will allow practitioners to create awareness during disasters and pandemics through expert narratives, news, and social media awareness.   Originality/value: This paper explores how the belief system of people is influenced by their socio-economic condition and how it affects their behavior in terms of combating pandemics. It also emphasizes that during disasters and pandemics, policymakers should take special initiatives for senior citizens and people with low income

    A Comprehensive Review of Vision-Based Robotic Applications: Current State, Components, Approaches, Barriers, and Potential Solutions

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    Being an emerging technology, robotic manipulation has encountered tremendous advancements due to technological developments starting from using sensors to artificial intelligence. Over the decades, robotic manipulation has advanced in terms of the versatility and flexibility of mobile robot platforms. Thus, robots are now capable of interacting with the world around them. To interact with the real world, robots require various sensory inputs from their surroundings, and the use of vision is rapidly increasing nowadays, as vision is unquestionably a rich source of information for a robotic system. In recent years, robotic manipulators have made significant progress towards achieving human-like abilities. There is still a large gap between human and robot dexterity, especially when it comes to executing complex and long-lasting manipulations. This paper comprehensively investigates the state-of-the-art development of vision-based robotic application, which includes the current state, components, and approaches used along with the algorithms with respect to the control and application of robots. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of those vision-based applied algorithms, their effectiveness, and their complexity has been enlightened here. To conclude, there is a discussion over the constraints while performing the research and potential solutions to develop a robust and accurate vision-based robot manipulation

    A Novel Framework for Mixed Reality–Based Control of Collaborative Robot: Development Study

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    BackgroundApplications of robotics in daily life are becoming essential by creating new possibilities in different fields, especially in the collaborative environment. The potentials of collaborative robots are tremendous as they can work in the same workspace as humans. A framework employing a top-notch technology for collaborative robots will surely be worthwhile for further research. ObjectiveThis study aims to present the development of a novel framework for the collaborative robot using mixed reality. MethodsThe framework uses Unity and Unity Hub as a cross-platform gaming engine and project management tool to design the mixed reality interface and digital twin. It also uses the Windows Mixed Reality platform to show digital materials on holographic display and the Azure mixed reality services to capture and expose digital information. Eventually, it uses a holographic device (HoloLens 2) to execute the mixed reality–based collaborative system. ResultsA thorough experiment was conducted to validate the novel framework for mixed reality–based control of a collaborative robot. This framework was successfully applied to implement a collaborative system using a 5–degree of freedom robot (xArm-5) in a mixed reality environment. The framework was stable and worked smoothly throughout the collaborative session. Due to the distributed nature of cloud applications, there is a negligible latency between giving a command and the execution of the physical collaborative robot. ConclusionsOpportunities for collaborative robots in telerehabilitation and teleoperation are vital as in any other field. The proposed framework was successfully applied in a collaborative session, and it can also be applied in other similar potential applications for robust and more promising performance

    Current Designs of Robotic Arm Grippers: A Comprehensive Systematic Review

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    Recent technological advances enable gripper-equipped robots to perform many tasks traditionally associated with the human hand, allowing the use of grippers in a wide range of applications. Depending on the application, an ideal gripper design should be affordable, energy-efficient, and adaptable to many situations. However, regardless of the number of grippers available on the market, there are still many tasks that are difficult for grippers to perform, which indicates the demand and room for new designs to compete with the human hand. Thus, this paper provides a comprehensive review of robotic arm grippers to identify the benefits and drawbacks of various gripper designs. The research compares gripper designs by considering the actuation mechanism, degrees of freedom, grasping capabilities with multiple objects, and applications, concluding which should be the gripper design with the broader set of capabilities
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