13 research outputs found

    Work in Progress. Haydn’s Schemata and Hexachords: Two Analytical Case Studies

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    Two analytical case studies, from Haydn’s minuet al roverso (from the Symphony Hob. I: 47) and the opening movement of the String Quartet Op. 50, no. 6, show the interaction of galant schemata (Gjerdingen 2007) and the hexachordal solmization of the solfeggio tradition (Baragwanath 2020). Haydn plays upon conventional galant schemata—presumably elements of style shared by listeners who are closely familiar with the idiom (even if they do not have explicit schema labels); he also plays upon a more esoteric element of his own training and that of many other musicians in the period: hexachordal solmization. By considering both schemata and hexachords, I argue that Haydn’s conceits work on multiple levels, communicating with both stylistic insiders familiar with schemata, as well as with a narrower group of insiders trained in hexachordal solmization

    Haydn’s Schemata and Hexachords: Two Analytical Case Studies

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    Towards a Galant Pedagogy: Partimenti and Schemata as Tools in the Pedagogy of Eighteenth-Century Style Improvisation

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    This article presents a pedagogical approach for teaching modern-day students how to improvise in eighteenth-century style based on Gjerdingen’s schemata and the tradition of partimenti. We present results from a pedagogical experiment conducted at the Eastman School of Music, in which students’ improvisations were recorded. We offer a qualitative assessment of selected student improvisations in order to demonstrate the merits of this approach for teaching music theory and historical improvisation. We also address the challenges associated with implementing such a pedagogical approach in modern-day theory curricula. We conclude by reflecting on sonata-form improvisations by the authors and discuss the theoretical implications of attempting to construct complete movements based on Gjerdingen’s schemata and formal considerations

    C.P.E. Bach's "art" and "craft"? : galant schemata and the Rule of the Octave as markers of convention in selected keyboard sonatas and in the Versuch

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    One of the central issues in the discourse on C. P. E. Bach's music is the relation between the public and private aspects of his work. Recent scholarship on partimenti and galant schemata (Gjerdingen 2007, Sanguinetti 2012) proposes a new view of the craft of eighteenth-century composition: it suggests that composers relied on a limited number of commonplace patterns, in contrast with later notions of the artwork as a uniquely inspired creation. This paper examines case studies from C. P. E. Bach's keyboard sonatas in which galant schemata might serve as markers of conventional "craft" and individualised "artistic" expression. I also comment briefly on Bach's sophisticated manipulations of the conventional Rule of the Octave in his Versuch (1753/1762)

    Unplayed Galant Melodies, the Ubiquity of the Rarest Interval, and the Heyday of the Major Mode

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    This article examines in a preliminary fashion the potential connections between the usage of Gjerdingen's (1988, 2007) skeletal galant schemata, the heyday of the major mode during the period 1750-1799 (Albrecht & Huron, 2014; Horn & Huron, 2015), and the rare intervals of the diatonic set (Browne, 1981). I discuss the relations between the rarity of the tritone and semitone in the diatonic template and in musical usage (Huron 2006, 2008; David Temperley, personal communication, 2017). I hypothesize that the skeletal usage of schemata emphasizes rare intervals (tritone and semitone) respective to their common counterparts. Though this is predominantly an armchair, speculative inquiry, a preliminary pilot analysis of a small expert-annotated corpus from Gjerdingen (2007) provides tentative support for the hypothesis that the skeletal usage of schemata overemphasizes vertical tritones, but not melodic semitones. The prevalence of skeletal tritones in the schemata abstracted by Gjerdingen suggests that the process of abstraction is associated with finding unambiguous cues for a local tonal context. While the present article relies on Gjerdingen's expert analytical annotations of a small corpus and extraction of a contrapuntal skeleton, I conclude by offering hypotheses for future testing regarding the increased prevalence and salience of tritones on the musical surface in the period 1750-1799, a subset of common-practice tonality

    Kleines harmonisches Labyrinth IIb

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    Walter Benjamins Aufsatz "Über Sprache überhaupt und über die Sprache des Menschen" dient als Ausgangspunkt für mein Stück. Benjamin verbindet die Schöpfungsgeschichte der Genesis und die Geschichte des Turms von Babel, wobei er die einheitliche, reine Sprache, die vor Babel gesprochen wurde, auf den idealen Zustand im Garten Eden bezieht. Zefanjas Prophetie für das Ende aller Tage führt kreisförmig auf diesen Anfang zurück: "Dann aber will ich den Völkern reine Lippen geben, dass sie alle des HERRN Namen anrufen sollen und ihm einträchtig dienen." (Zef 3,9)

    "Schenker the galant?" : Tacit knowledge, contradiction, and complementation in the interaction between Gjerdingen's theory of galant schemata and Schenkerian analysis

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    Includes abstract and vita.This study explores the analytical and theoretical interactions between two theories of music that are commonly viewed as antithetical: Heinrich Schenker's theory of tonality and Robert Gjerdingen's theory of galant schemata. The theories differ both in their underlying theoretical apparatus and in their analytical application, as well as in the historical scope to which they are applied: Schenkerian theory is traditionally applied to common-practice music (ca. 1700-1900), while Gjerdingen's theory offers a framework for the extended "galant" style (ca. 1725-1785). The theoretical introduction surveys points of friction and contact between the two theories, highlighting the challenges of harmonizing the two. One potential point of contact is the possibility that Schenkerian graphs represent their authors' tacit knowledge of the schemata. In order to find a stylistic common ground between the two theories, the study focuses on selected piano sonatas of W. A. Mozart. It surveys Gjerdingen's analysis of the first movement of K. 545 and offers original analyses into galant schemata of K. 333 and K. 457. This leads to a discussion of Mozart's unique and artful use of the schemata, representing an aspect of his compositional technique that can only be captured using this analytical tool. Two Schenkerian sources analyzing Mozart sonatas, Beach (1990) and Cadwallader and Gagnâe (1998) serve as case studies. The detailed discussion demonstrates the extent to which these Schenkerian analyses coincide with the reduction into schemata and also highlights points of difference and friction, concerning both pitch reduction and rhythm and meter. The case studies also demonstrate the extent to which the theories offer complementary perspectives on eighteenth-century music, each highlighting unique analytical details. The case studies suggest that the schemata may well be operative as tacit considerations in the Schenkerian analytical process. However, this hypothesis is problematized and alternative explanations are presented, including the possibility that both Schenkerian graphs amd reductions into schemata result from the same contrapuntal principles. The study concludes by suggestinng directions for further research, including the integration of the schemata as lower-level surface phenomena within Schenkerian reductions

    Carotid Artery Endarterectomy Effect on Choroidal Thickness: One-Year Follow-Up

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    Purpose. To evaluate the change in choroidal thickness after carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA) in patients without retinal pathology. Methods. A prospective series of patients who underwent CEA at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed one day before the CEA and at least 6 months after. Data included medical history, smoking history, percentage of carotid stenosis before and after CEA, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and choroidal thickness (subfoveal, 500 µm, 1000 µm, and 1500 µm nasal and temporal). Results. Eight patients (seven male and one female) with a mean age of 70.5 ± 6.1 years were included in the study. The mean internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis was 89.8% ± 5.1 in the operated side, 33.7% ± 10.9 in the nonoperated side (p<0.0001), and 0% after CEA (p<0.0001). Operated side BCVA was 0.35 ± 0.66 compared to 0.61 ± 0.83 in the nonoperated side (p=0.51). The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) of the operated side was 277 ± 67 µm compared to 268 ± 71 µm in the nonoperated side (p=0.81). SFChT and CMT after CEA were 275 ± 64 µm (p=0.96) and 268 ± 29 µm (p=0.98), respectively. Conclusions. SFChT and CMT in patients without retinal or choroidal pathology and significant ICA stenosis can be normal and may not change after successful ipsilateral CEA
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