628 research outputs found

    On the inverse Compton scattering model of radio pulsars

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    Some characteristics of the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model are reviewed. At least the following properties of radio pulsars can be reproduced in the model: core or central emission beam, one or two hollow emission cones, different emission heights of these components, diverse pulse profiles at various frequencies, linear and circular polarization features of core and cones.Comment: 5 pages, no figures, LaTeX, a proceeding paper for Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, Aug. 1999, HongKong, Chin

    Experimental investigation of a solar collector integrated with a pulsating heat pipe and a compound parabolic concentrator

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    The paper reports an experimental investigation of a newly proposed solar collector that integrates a closed-end pulsating heat pipe (PHP) and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The PHP is used as an absorber due to its simple structure and high heat transfer capacity. The CPC has a concentration ratio of 3.4 and can be readily manufactured by three-dimensional printing. The CPC can significantly increase the incident solar irradiation intensity to the PHP absorber and also reduce the heat loss due to the decrease in the area of the hot surface. A prototype of the solar collector has been built, consisting of a PHP absorber bent by 4 mm diameter copper tube, CPC arrayed by 10 × 2 CPC units with the collection area of 300 × 427.6 mm2, a hot water tank and a glass cover. HFE7100 was utilized as the working fluid at a filling ratio of 40%. The operating characteristics and thermal efficiency of the solar collector were experimentally studied. The steady and periodic temperature fluctuations of the evaporation and condensation sections of the PHP absorber indicate that the absorber works well with a thermal resistance of about 0.26 °C/W. It is also found that, as the main factor to the the thermal performance of the collector, thermal resistance of the PHP absorber decreases with increasing evaporation temperature. The collector apparently shows start-up, operational and shutdown stages at the starting and ending temperatures of 75 °C. When the direct normal irradiance is 800 W/m2, the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the solar collector can reach up to 50%.The work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51506004), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (3162009), Scientific Research Project of Beijing Educational Committee (KM201410016001) and Research Fund of Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture

    Probing deep level centers in GaN epilayers with variable-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of AuGaN Schottky contacts

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    Under identical preparation conditions, AuGaN Schottky contacts were prepared on two kinds of GaN epilayers with significantly different background electron concentrations and mobility as well as yellow emission intensities. Current-voltage (I-V) and variable-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics show that the Schottky contacts on the GaN epilayer with a higher background carrier concentration and strong yellow emission exhibit anomalous reverse-bias I-V and C-V characteristics. This is attributed to the presence of deep level centers. Theoretical simulation of the low-frequency C-V curves leads to a determination of the density and energy level position of the deep centers. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.published_or_final_versio

    Effects of annealing temperature on the characteristics of Ga-doped ZnO film metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

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    Probing deep level centers in GaN epilayers with variable-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of Au/GaN Schottky contacts

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    Author name used in this publication: X. M. Tao2006-2007 > Academic research: refereed > Publication in refereed journalVersion of RecordPublishe

    Influence of indium-tin-oxide thin-film quality on reverse leakage current of indium-tin-oxide/n-GaN Schottky contacts

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    Author name used in this publication: X. M. Tao2006-2007 > Academic research: refereed > Publication in refereed journalVersion of RecordPublishe

    Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction study of neutron irradiated GaN epilayers

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    Neutron irradiation induced defects and their effects on the carrier concentration of GaN epilayers are investigated with Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction techniques. Relative to the as-grown sample, the neutronirradiated samples exhibit a clear variation in the position and lineshape of the A 1(LO)-mode Raman peak as well as in the fullwidth at half-maximum height (FWHM) of the XRD rocking curves. Careful curve fitting and adequate calculations give the carrier concentrations of the irradiated GaN. It is found that the defects induced by neutron irradiation act as carrier trap centres which capture the electron carriers so that the carrier concentration of the irradiated GaN is reduced. © 2005 IEEE.published_or_final_versio

    A prospective pilot clinical trial evaluating the utility of a dynamic near-infrared imaging device for characterizing suspicious breast lesions

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    Introduction: Characterizing and differentiating between malignant tumors, benign tumors, and normal breast tissue is increasingly important in the patient presenting with breast problems. Near-infrared diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy is capable of measuring multiple physiologic parameters of biological tissue systems and may have clinical applications for assessing the development and progression of neoplastic processes, including breast cancer. The currently available application of near-infrared imaging technology for the breast, however, is compromised by low spatial resolution, tissue heterogeneity, and interpatient variation. Materials and methods: We tested a dynamic near-infrared imaging schema for the characterization of suspicious breast lesions identified on diagnostic clinical ultrasound. A portable handheld near-infrared tissue imaging device (P-Scan; ViOptix Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) was utilized. An external mechanical compression force was applied to breast tissue. The tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration were recorded simultaneously by the handheld near-infrared imaging device. Twelve categories of dynamic tissue parameters were derived based on real-time measurements of the tissue hemoglobin concentration and the oxygen saturation. Results: Fifty suspicious breast lesions were evaluated in 48 patients. Statistical analyses were carried out on 36 out of 50 datasets that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Suspicious breast lesions identified on diagnostic clinical ultrasound had lower oxygenation and higher hemoglobin concentration than the surrounding normal breast tissue. Furthermore, histopathologic-proven malignant breast tumors had a lower differential hemoglobin contrast (that is, the difference of hemoglobin concentration variability between the suspicious breast lesion and the normal breast parenchyma located remotely elsewhere within the ipsilateral breast) as compared with histopathologic-proven benign breast lesions. Conclusion: The proposed dynamic near-infrared imaging schema has the potential to differentiate benign processes from those of malignant breast tumors. Further development and refinement of the dynamic imaging device and additional subsequent clinical testing are necessary for optimizing the accuracy of detection

    Evidence for the Photoionization Absorption Edge in a Photospheric Radius Expansion X-Ray Burst from GRS 1747-312 in Terzan 6

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    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts on the surface of neutron stars (NSs) can enrich the photosphere with metals, which may imprint photoionization edges on the burst spectra. We report here the discovery of absorption edges in the spectra of the type I X-ray burst from the NS low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312 in Terzan 6 during observations by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the edge energy evolves from 9.45 +/- 0.51 to similar to 6 keV and then back to 9.44 +/- 0.40 keV during the photospheric radius expansion phase and remains at 8.06 +/- 0.66 keV in the cooling tail. The photoionization absorption edges of hydrogen-like Ni, Fe, or an Fe/Ni mixture and the bound-bound transitions of metals may be responsible for the observed spectral features. The ratio of the measured absorption edge energy in the cooling tail to the laboratory value of the hydrogen-like Ni(Fe) edge energy allows us to estimate the gravitational redshift factor 1 + z = 1.34 +/- 0.11(1 + z = 1.15 +/- 0.09). The evolution of the spectral parameters during the cooling tail are well described by metal-rich atmosphere models. The combined constraints on the NS mass and radius from the direct cooling method and the tidal deformability strongly suggest very high atmospheric abundance of the iron group elements and limit the distance to the source to 11 +/- 1 kpc
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