203 research outputs found

### Multiple phases in modularity-based community detection

Detecting communities in a network, based only on the adjacency matrix, is a
problem of interest to several scientific disciplines. Recently, Zhang and
Moore have introduced an algorithm in [P. Zhang and C. Moore, Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 111, 18144 (2014)], called mod-bp, that avoids
overfitting the data by optimizing a weighted average of modularity (a popular
goodness-of-fit measure in community detection) and entropy (i.e. number of
configurations with a given modularity). The adjustment of the relative weight,
the "temperature" of the model, is crucial for getting a correct result from
mod-bp. In this work we study the many phase transitions that mod-bp may
undergo by changing the two parameters of the algorithm: the temperature $T$
and the maximum number of groups $q$. We introduce a new set of order
parameters that allow to determine the actual number of groups $\hat{q}$, and
we observe on both synthetic and real networks the existence of phases with any
$\hat{q} \in \{1,q\}$, which were unknown before. We discuss how to interpret
the results of mod-bp and how to make the optimal choice for the problem of
detecting significant communities.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figure

### Comparison of Gabay-Toulouse and de Almeida-Thouless instabilities for the spin glass XY model in a field on sparse random graphs

Vector spin glasses are known to show two different kinds of phase
transitions in presence of an external field: the so-called de Almeida-Thouless
and Gabay-Toulouse lines. While the former has been studied to some extent on
several topologies (fully connected, random graphs, finite-dimensional
lattices, chains with long-range interactions), the latter has been studied
only in fully connected models, which however are known to show some unphysical
behaviors (e.g. the divergence of these critical lines in the zero-temperature
limit). Here we compute analytically both these critical lines for XY spin
glasses on random regular graphs. We discuss the different nature of these
phase transitions and the dependence of the critical behavior on the field
distribution. We also study the crossover between the two different critical
behaviors, by suitably tuning the field distribution.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figures; added a long appendix with respect to v

### An improved Belief Propagation algorithm finds many Bethe states in the random field Ising model on random graphs

We first present an empirical study of the Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm,
when run on the random field Ising model defined on random regular graphs in
the zero temperature limit. We introduce the notion of maximal solutions for
the BP equations and we use them to fix a fraction of spins in their ground
state configuration. At the phase transition point the fraction of
unconstrained spins percolates and their number diverges with the system size.
This in turn makes the associated optimization problem highly non trivial in
the critical region. Using the bounds on the BP messages provided by the
maximal solutions we design a new and very easy to implement BP scheme which is
able to output a large number of stable fixed points. On one side this new
algorithm is able to provide the minimum energy configuration with high
probability in a competitive time. On the other side we found that the number
of fixed points of the BP algorithm grows with the system size in the critical
region. This unexpected feature poses new relevant questions on the physics of
this class of models.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figure

### Solving the inverse Ising problem by mean-field methods in a clustered phase space with many states

In this work we explain how to properly use mean-field methods to solve the
inverse Ising problem when the phase space is clustered, that is many states
are present. The clustering of the phase space can occur for many reasons, e.g.
when a system undergoes a phase transition. Mean-field methods for the inverse
Ising problem are typically used without taking into account the eventual
clustered structure of the input configurations and may led to very bad
inference (for instance in the low temperature phase of the Curie-Weiss model).
In the present work we explain how to modify mean-field approaches when the
phase space is clustered and we illustrate the effectiveness of the new method
on different clustered structures (low temperature phases of Curie-Weiss and
Hopfield models).Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

### A mean field method with correlations determined by linear response

We introduce a new mean-field approximation based on the reconciliation of
maximum entropy and linear response for correlations in the cluster variation
method. Within a general formalism that includes previous mean-field methods,
we derive formulas improving upon, e.g., the Bethe approximation and the
Sessak-Monasson result at high temperature. Applying the method to direct and
inverse Ising problems, we find improvements over standard implementations.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, 9 appendices, significant expansion on versions
v1 and v

### Improving variational methods via pairwise linear response identities

nference methods are often formulated as variational approximations: these approxima-tions allow easy evaluation of statistics by marginalization or linear response, but theseestimates can be inconsistent. We show that by introducing constraints on covariance, onecan ensure consistency of linear response with the variational parameters, and in so doinginference of marginal probability distributions is improved. For the Bethe approximationand its generalizations, improvements are achieved with simple choices of the constraints.The approximations are presented as variational frameworks; iterative procedures relatedto message passing are provided for finding the minim

### Monte Carlo algorithms are very effective in finding the largest independent set in sparse random graphs

The effectiveness of stochastic algorithms based on Monte Carlo dynamics in
solving hard optimization problems is mostly unknown. Beyond the basic
statement that at a dynamical phase transition the ergodicity breaks and a
Monte Carlo dynamics cannot sample correctly the probability distribution in
times linear in the system size, there are almost no predictions nor intuitions
on the behavior of this class of stochastic dynamics. The situation is
particularly intricate because, when using a Monte Carlo based algorithm as an
optimization algorithm, one is usually interested in the out of equilibrium
behavior which is very hard to analyse. Here we focus on the use of Parallel
Tempering in the search for the largest independent set in a sparse random
graph, showing that it can find solutions well beyond the dynamical threshold.
Comparison with state-of-the-art message passing algorithms reveals that
parallel tempering is definitely the algorithm performing best, although a
theory explaining its behavior is still lacking.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figure

### The backtracking survey propagation algorithm for solving random K-SAT problems

Discrete combinatorial optimization has a central role in many scientific
disciplines, however, for hard problems we lack linear time algorithms that
would allow us to solve very large instances. Moreover, it is still unclear
what are the key features that make a discrete combinatorial optimization
problem hard to solve. Here we study random K-satisfiability problems with
$K=3,4$, which are known to be very hard close to the SAT-UNSAT threshold,
where problems stop having solutions. We show that the backtracking survey
propagation algorithm, in a time practically linear in the problem size, is
able to find solutions very close to the threshold, in a region unreachable by
any other algorithm. All solutions found have no frozen variables, thus
supporting the conjecture that only unfrozen solutions can be found in linear
time, and that a problem becomes impossible to solve in linear time when all
solutions contain frozen variables.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figures. v2: data largely improved and manuscript
rewritte

### The random field XY model on sparse random graphs shows replica symmetry breaking and marginally stable ferromagnetism

The ferromagnetic XY model on sparse random graphs in a randomly oriented
field is analyzed via the belief propagation algorithm. At variance with the
fully connected case and with the random field Ising model on the same
topology, we find strong evidences of a tiny region with Replica Symmetry
Breaking (RSB) in the limit of very low temperatures. This RSB phase is robust
against different choices of the external field direction, while it rapidly
vanishes when increasing the graph mean degree, the temperature or the
directional bias in the external field. The crucial ingredients to have such a
RSB phase seem to be the continuous nature of vector spins, mostly preserved by
the O(2)-invariant random field, and the strong spatial heterogeneity, due to
graph sparsity. We also uncover that the ferromagnetic phase can be marginally
stable despite the presence of the random field. Finally, we study the proper
correlation functions approaching the critical points to identify the ones that
become more critical.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figure

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