305 research outputs found

### Orbital and Spin Excitations in Cobalt Oxide

By means of neutron scattering we have determined new branches of magnetic
excitations in orbitally active CoO (TN=290 K) up to 15 THz and for
temperatures from 6 K to 450 K. Data were taken in the (111) direction in six
single-crystal zones. From the dependence on temperature and Q we have
identified several branches of magnetic excitation. We describe a model for the
coupled orbital and spin states of Co2+ subject to a crystal field and
tetragonal distortion.Comment: To be published in Physica B (Proceedings of SCES07 conference in
Houston

### Mean-field model of the ferromagnetic ordering in the superconducting phase of ErNi_2B_2C

A mean-field model explaining most of the details in the magnetic phase
diagram of ErNi_2B_2C is presented. The low-temperature magnetic properties are
found to be dominated by the appearance of long-period commensurate structures.
The stable structure at low temperatures and zero field is found to have a
period of 40 layers along the a direction, and upon cooling it undergoes a
first-order transition at T_C = 2.3 K to a different 40-layered structure
having a net ferromagnetic component of about 0.4 mu_B/Er. The
neutron-diffraction patterns predicted by the two 40-layered structures, above
and below T_C, are in agreement with the observations of Choi et al.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures (Revtex4

### Surgical Aspects of Dissecting Aortic Aneurysms

Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66511/2/10.1177_000331975400500313.pd

### Influence of a low magnetic field on the thermal diffusivity of Bi-2212

The thermal diffusivity of a Bi-2212 polycrystalline sample has been measured
under a 1T magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the heat flux. The
magnetic contribution to the heat carrier mean free path has been extracted and
is found to behave as a simple power law. This behavior can be attributed to a
percolation process of electrons in the vortex lattice created by the magnetic
field.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures; to be published in Phys. Rev.

### Density functional calculations for 4He droplets

A novel density functional, which accounts correctly for the equation of
state, the static response function and the phonon-roton dispersion in bulk
liquid helium, is used to predict static and dynamic properties of helium
droplets. The static density profile is found to exhibit significant
oscillations, which are accompanied by deviations of the evaporation energy
from a liquid drop behaviour in the case of small droplets. The connection
between such oscillations and the structure of the static response function in
the liquid is explicitly discussed. The energy and the wave function of excited
states are then calculated in the framework of time dependent density
functional theory. The new functional, which contains backflow-like effects, is
expected to yield quantitatively correct predictions for the excitation
spectrum also in the roton wave-length range.Comment: 15 pages, REVTEX, 10 figures available upon request or at
http://anubis.science.unitn.it/~dalfovo/papers/papers.htm

### Disorder and relaxation mode in the lattice dynamics of PbMg$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$O$_3$ relaxor ferroelectric

The low-energy part of vibration spectrum in PbMg$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$O$_3$
relaxor ferroelectric was studied by inelastic neutron scattering. We observed
the coexistence of a resolution-limited central peak with strong quasielastic
scattering. The line-width of the quasielastic component follows a
$\Gamma_0+Dq^2$ dependence. We find that $\Gamma_0$ is temperature-dependent.
The relaxation time follows the Arrhenius law well. The presence of a
relaxation mode associated with quasi-elastic scattering in PMN indicates that
order-disorder behaviour plays an important r\^ole in the dynamics of diffuse
phase transitions

### Volume element structure and roton-maxon-phonon excitations in superfluid helium beyond the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation

We propose a theory which deals with the structure and interactions of volume
elements in liquid helium II. The approach consists of two nested models linked
via parametric space. The short-wavelength part describes the interior
structure of the fluid element using a non-perturbative approach based on the
logarithmic wave equation; it suggests the Gaussian-like behaviour of the
element's interior density and interparticle interaction potential. The
long-wavelength part is the quantum many-body theory of such elements which
deals with their dynamics and interactions. Our approach leads to a unified
description of the phonon, maxon and roton excitations, and has noteworthy
agreement with experiment: with one essential parameter to fit we reproduce at
high accuracy not only the roton minimum but also the neighboring local maximum
as well as the sound velocity and structure factor.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

### Defect-induced condensation and central peak at elastic phase transitions

Static and dynamical properties of elastic phase transitions under the
influence of short--range defects, which locally increase the transition
temperature, are investigated. Our approach is based on a Ginzburg--Landau
theory for three--dimensional crystals with one--, two-- or three--dimensional
soft sectors, respectively. Systems with a finite concentration $n_{\rm D}$ of
quenched, randomly placed defects display a phase transition at a temperature
$T_c(n_{\rm D})$, which can be considerably above the transition temperature
$T_c^0$ of the pure system. The phonon correlation function is calculated in
single--site approximation. For $T>T_c(n_{\rm D})$ a dynamical central peak
appears; upon approaching $T_c(n_{\rm D})$, its height diverges and its width
vanishes. Using an appropriate self--consistent method, we calculate the
spatially inhomogeneous order parameter, the free energy and the specific heat,
as well as the dynamical correlation function in the ordered phase. The
dynamical central peak disappears again as the temperatur is lowered below
$T_c(n_{\rm D})$. The inhomogeneous order parameter causes a static central
peak in the scattering cross section, with a finite $k$ width depending on the
orientation of the external wave vector ${\bf k}$ relative to the soft sector.
The jump in the specific heat at the transition temperatur of the pure system
is smeared out by the influence of the defects, leading to a distinct maximum
instead. In addition, there emerges a tiny discontinuity of the specific heat
at $T_c(n_{\rm D})$. We also discuss the range of validity of the mean--field
approach, and provide a more realistic estimate for the transition temperature.Comment: 11 pages, 11 ps-figures, to appear in PR

### Nonequilibrium critical dynamics of the relaxational models C and D

We investigate the critical dynamics of the $n$-component relaxational models
C and D which incorporate the coupling of a nonconserved and conserved order
parameter S, respectively, to the conserved energy density rho, under
nonequilibrium conditions by means of the dynamical renormalization group.
Detailed balance violations can be implemented isotropically by allowing for
different effective temperatures for the heat baths coupling to the slow modes.
In the case of model D with conserved order parameter, the energy density
fluctuations can be integrated out. For model C with scalar order parameter, in
equilibrium governed by strong dynamic scaling (z_S = z_rho), we find no
genuine nonequilibrium fixed point. The nonequilibrium critical dynamics of
model C with n = 1 thus follows the behavior of other systems with nonconserved
order parameter wherein detailed balance becomes effectively restored at the
phase transition. For n >= 4, the energy density decouples from the order
parameter. However, for n = 2 and n = 3, in the weak dynamic scaling regime
(z_S <= z_rho) entire lines of genuine nonequilibrium model C fixed points
emerge to one-loop order, which are characterized by continuously varying
critical exponents. Similarly, the nonequilibrium model C with spatially
anisotropic noise and n < 4 allows for continuously varying exponents, yet with
strong dynamic scaling. Subjecting model D to anisotropic nonequilibrium
perturbations leads to genuinely different critical behavior with softening
only in subsectors of momentum space and correspondingly anisotropic scaling
exponents. Similar to the two-temperature model B the effective theory at
criticality can be cast into an equilibrium model D dynamics, albeit
incorporating long-range interactions of the uniaxial dipolar type.Comment: Revtex, 23 pages, 5 eps figures included (minor additions), to appear
in Phys. Rev.

### Neutron scattering search for static magnetism in oxygen ordered YBa2Cu3O6.5

We present elastic and inelastic neutron scattering results on highly oxygen
ordered YBa2Cu3O6.5 ortho-II. We find no evidence for the presence of ordered
magnetic moments to a sensitivity of 0.003 Bohr magnetons, an order of
magnitude smaller than has been suggested in theories of orbital or
d-density-wave (DDW) currents. The absence of sharp elastic peaks, shows that
the d-density-wave phase is not present, at least for the superconductor with
the doping of 6.5 and the ordered ortho-II structure. We cannot exclude the
possibility that a broad peak may exist with extremely short-range DDW
correlations. For less ordered or more doped crystals it is possible that
disorder may lead to static magnetism. We have also searched for the large
normal state spin gap that is predicted to exist in an ordered DDW phase.
Instead of a gap we find that the Q-correlated spin susceptibility persists to
the lowest energies studied, 6 meV. Our results are compatible with the
coexistence of superconductivity with orbital currents, but only if they are
dynamic, and exclude a sharp phase transition to an ordered d-density-wave
phase.Comment: 6 pages 4 figures RevTex Submitted to Phys Rev B January 23, 200

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