1,674 research outputs found

    Phase-space geometry of the generalized Langevin equation

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    The generalized Langevin equation is widely used to model the influence of a heat bath upon a reactive system. This equation will here be studied from a geometric point of view. A dynamical phase space that represents all possible states of the system will be constructed, the generalized Langevin equation will be formally rewritten as a pair of coupled ordinary differential equations, and the fundamental geometric structures in phase space will be described. It will be shown that the phase space itself and its geometric structure depend critically on the preparation of the system: A system that is assumed to have been in existence for ever has a larger phase space with a simpler structure than a system that is prepared at a finite time. These differences persist even in the long-time limit, where one might expect the details of preparation to become irrelevant

    Counting rule for Nambu-Goldstone modes in nonrelativistic systems

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    The counting rule for Nambu-Goldstone modes is discussed using Mori's projection operator method in nonrelativistic systems at zero and finite temperatures. We show that the number of Nambu-Goldstone modes is equal to the number of broken charges, Q_a, minus half the rank of the expectation value of [Q_a,Q_b].Comment: 5 pages, no figures; typos corrected; some discussion added and clarifie

    A non-equilibrium dynamic mechanism for the allosteric effect

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    Allosteric regulation is often viewed as thermodynamic in nature. However protein internal motions during an enzymatic reaction cycle can be slow hopping processes over numerous potential barriers. We propose that regulating molecules may function by modifying the nonequilibrium protein dynamics. The theory predicts that an enzyme under the new mechanism has different temperature dependence, waiting time distribution of the turnover cycle, and dynamic fluctuation patterns with and without effector. Experimental tests of the theory are proposed.Comment: accepted by Phys. Rev. Lett. Major revisions were made to fit the style. 4 pages, 2 figure

    Memory Effects In Nonequilibrium Quantum Impurity Models

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    Memory effects play a key role in the dynamics of strongly correlated systems driven out of equilibrium. In the present study, we explore the nature of memory in the nonequilibrium Anderson impurity model. The Nakajima--Zwanzig--Mori formalism is used to derive an exact generalized quantum master equation for the reduced density matrix of the interacting quantum dot, which includes a non-Markovian memory kernel. A real-time path integral formulation is developed, in which all diagrams are stochastically sampled in order to numerically evaluate the memory kernel. We explore the effects of temperature down to the Kondo regime, as well as the role of source--drain bias voltage and band width on the memory. Typically, the memory decays on timescales significantly shorter than the dynamics of the reduced density matrix itself, yet under certain conditions it develops a smaller long tail. In addition we address the conditions required for the existence, uniqueness and stability of a steady-state.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics

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    The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this work, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times.Comment: 4 pages, title was modified, final version published in Phys. Rev.

    Geometric and projection effects in Kramers-Moyal analysis

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    Kramers-Moyal coefficients provide a simple and easily visualized method with which to analyze stochastic time series, particularly nonlinear ones. One mechanism that can affect the estimation of the coefficients is geometric projection effects. For some biologically-inspired examples, these effects are predicted and explored with a non-stochastic projection operator method, and compared with direct numerical simulation of the systems' Langevin equations. General features and characteristics are identified, and the utility of the Kramers-Moyal method discussed. Projections of a system are in general non-Markovian, but here the Kramers-Moyal method remains useful, and in any case the primary examples considered are found to be close to Markovian.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Enhanced diffusion and ordering of self-propelled rods

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    Starting from a minimal physical model of self propelled hard rods on a substrate in two dimensions, we derive a modified Smoluchowski equation for the system. Self -propulsion enhances longitudinal diffusion and modifies the mean field excluded volume interaction. From the Smoluchowski equation we obtain hydrodynamic equations for rod concentration, polarization and nematic order parameter. New results at large scales are a lowering of the density of the isotropic-nematic transition and a strong enhancement of boundary effects in confined self-propelled systems.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Athermal Phase Separation of Self-Propelled Particles with no Alignment

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    We study numerically and analytically a model of self-propelled polar disks on a substrate in two dimensions. The particles interact via isotropic repulsive forces and are subject to rotational noise, but there is no aligning interaction. As a result, the system does not exhibit an ordered state. The isotropic fluid phase separates well below close packing and exhibits the large number fluctuations and clustering found ubiquitously in active systems. Our work shows that this behavior is a generic property of systems that are driven out of equilibrium locally, as for instance by self propulsion.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Charge correlations and optical conductivity in weakly doped antiferromagnets

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    We investigate the dynamical charge-charge correlation function and the optical conductivity in weakly doped antiferromagnets using Mori-Zwanzig projection technique. The system is described by the two-dimensional t-J model. The arising matrix elements are evaluated within a cumulant formalism which was recently applied to investigate magnetic properties of weakly doped antiferromagnets. Within the present approach the ground state consists of non-interacting hole quasiparticles. Our spectra agree well with numerical results calculated via exact diagonalization techniques. The method we employ enables us to explain the features present in the correlation functions. We conclude that the charge dynamics at weak doping is governed by transitions between excited states of spin-bag quasiparticles.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, to appear in Europhys. Letter

    Coarse Nonlinear Dynamics and Metastability of Filling-Emptying Transitions: Water in Carbon Nanotubes

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    Using a Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics (CMD) approach we study the apparent nonlinear dynamics of water molecules filling/emptying carbon nanotubes as a function of system parameters. Different levels of the pore hydrophobicity give rise to tubes that are empty, water-filled, or fluctuate between these two long-lived metastable states. The corresponding coarse-grained free energy surfaces and their hysteretic parameter dependence are explored by linking MD to continuum fixed point and bifurcation algorithms. The results are validated through equilibrium MD simulations.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; accepted versio
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