34,670 research outputs found

    Quantifying excitations of quasinormal mode systems

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    Computations of the strong field generation of gravitational waves by black hole processes produce waveforms that are dominated by quasinormal (QN) ringing, a damped oscillation characteristic of the black hole. We describe here the mathematical problem of quantifying the QN content of the waveforms generated. This is done in several steps: (i) We develop the mathematics of QN systems that are complete (in a sense to be defined) and show that there is a quantity, the ``excitation coefficient,'' that appears to have the properties needed to quantify QN content. (ii) We show that incomplete systems can (at least sometimes) be converted to physically equivalent complete systems. Most notably, we give a rigorous proof of completeness for a specific modified model problem. (iii) We evaluate the excitation coefficient for the model problem, and demonstrate that the excitation coefficient is of limited utility. We finish by discussing the general question of quantification of QN excitations, and offer a few speculations about unavoidable differences between normal mode and QN systems.Comment: 27 pages, 14 figures. To be published in: J. Math. Phys. (1999

    High repetition rate sealed CO2 TEA lasers using heterogeneous catalysts

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    The significant operational advantages offered by CO2 lasers, operating in the 10.6 micron region of the spectrum, over current solid state lasers, emitting in the near IR region, have prompted increased interest in the development of compact, reliable, rugged CO2 laser sources. Perhaps the most critical aspect associated with achieving a laser compatible with military use is the development of lasers which require no gas replenishment. Sealed, single shot, CO2 TEA lasers have been available for a number of years. Stark et al were first to demonstrate reliable sealed operation in single shot CO2 TEA lasers in 1975 using gas catalysis. GEC Avionics reported the compact, environmentally qualified, MKIII CO2 TEA laser with a pulse life of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses in 1980. A sealed laser lifetime of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses is acceptable for single shot cases, such as direct detection rangefinders for tank laser sights. However, in many other applications, such as tracking of fast moving targets, it is essential that a repetition rate of typically 30Hz to 100Hz is employed. In such cases, a pulse lifetime of 10 to the 6th power pulses is no longer sufficient and a minimum pulse lifetime 10 to the 7th power pulses is essential to ensure a useful service life. In 1983 Stark el al described a sealed, 100Hz CO2 TEA laser, with a life of greater than 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power, which employed heterogeneous catalysis. Following this pioneering work, GEC Avionics has been engaged in the development of sealed high repetition rate lasers with a pulse lifetime of 20 million pulses

    Characterization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Roots Versus Root Pulling Resistance as Selection Indices for Draught Tolerance

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    A technique described as Root Pulling Resistance (RPR) was used to evaluate genotypic differences in root growth and development of 50 rice germplasm accessions and cultivars. Several root characteristics in rice are associated with drought tolerance and avoidance capability of plants. The RPR measurements showed a significant positive correlation with maximum root length (r=0.69), root thickness (r=0.75), branching number (r=0.75), and root dry weight (r= 0.82). Rice genotypes that had a high RPR value were identified as having longer, thicker, and denser root systems. The data indicated that high RPR measurements are strongly correlated with greater root penetration. Munji Sufaid Pak, IR52 (IR5853-1 18-5) and Saunfia or Mabla Pak 329 had a significantly greater root length, root thickness, root number, root branching and dry weight as compared to IR 36. Also, there was no correlation between plant height and RPR. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that the RPR technique is ideal for selecting superior root systems and potential drought tolerant rice germplasm and cultivars

    Mapping the Berry Curvature from Semiclassical Dynamics in Optical Lattices

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    We propose a general method by which experiments on ultracold gases can be used to determine the topological properties of the energy bands of optical lattices, as represented by the map of the Berry curvature across the Brillouin zone. The Berry curvature modifies the semiclassical dynamics and hence the trajectory of a wave packet undergoing Bloch oscillations. However, in two dimensions these trajectories may be complicated Lissajous-like figures, making it difficult to extract the effects of Berry curvature in general. We propose how this can be done using a "time-reversal" protocol. This compares the velocity of a wave packet under positive and negative external force, and allows a clean measurement of the Berry curvature over the Brillouin zone. We discuss how this protocol may be implemented and explore the semiclassical dynamics for three specific systems: the asymmetric hexagonal lattice, and two "optical flux" lattices in which the Chern number is nonzero. Finally, we discuss general experimental considerations for observing Berry curvature effects in ultracold gases.Comment: 12 page

    Apparatus for establishing flow of a fluid mass having a known velocity

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    An apparatus for establishing a flow of fluid mass, such as gas, having a known velocity is introduced. The apparatus is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber conforming to a closed-loop configuration and including a throat and a plurality of axially displaceable pistons for sweeping through the throat a stream of gas including a core and an unsheared boundary layer. Within the throat there is a cylindrical coring body concentrically related to the throat for receiving the core, and a chamber surrounding the cylindrical body for drawing off the boundary layer, whereby the velocity of the core is liberated from the effects of the velocity of the boundary layer

    Design considerations and test facilities for accelerated radiation effects testing

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    Test design parameters for accelerated dose rate radiation effects tests for spacecraft parts and subsystems used in long term mission (years) are detailed. A facility for use in long term accelerated and unaccelerated testing is described
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