10,101 research outputs found

    Field-theory results for three-dimensional transitions with complex symmetries

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    We discuss several examples of three-dimensional critical phenomena that can be described by Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson ϕ4\phi^4 theories. We present an overview of field-theoretical results obtained from the analysis of high-order perturbative series in the frameworks of the ϵ\epsilon and of the fixed-dimension d=3 expansions. In particular, we discuss the stability of the O(N)-symmetric fixed point in a generic N-component theory, the critical behaviors of randomly dilute Ising-like systems and frustrated spin systems with noncollinear order, the multicritical behavior arising from the competition of two distinct types of ordering with symmetry O(n1n_1) and O(n2n_2) respectively.Comment: 9 pages, Talk at the Conference TH2002, Paris, July 200

    Dynamic crossover in the global persistence at criticality

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    We investigate the global persistence properties of critical systems relaxing from an initial state with non-vanishing value of the order parameter (e.g., the magnetization in the Ising model). The persistence probability of the global order parameter displays two consecutive regimes in which it decays algebraically in time with two distinct universal exponents. The associated crossover is controlled by the initial value m_0 of the order parameter and the typical time at which it occurs diverges as m_0 vanishes. Monte-Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional Ising model with Glauber dynamics display clearly this crossover. The measured exponent of the ultimate algebraic decay is in rather good agreement with our theoretical predictions for the Ising universality class.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Geometrical optics analysis of the short-time stability properties of the Einstein evolution equations

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    Many alternative formulations of Einstein's evolution have lately been examined, in an effort to discover one which yields slow growth of constraint-violating errors. In this paper, rather than directly search for well-behaved formulations, we instead develop analytic tools to discover which formulations are particularly ill-behaved. Specifically, we examine the growth of approximate (geometric-optics) solutions, studied only in the future domain of dependence of the initial data slice (e.g. we study transients). By evaluating the amplification of transients a given formulation will produce, we may therefore eliminate from consideration the most pathological formulations (e.g. those with numerically-unacceptable amplification). This technique has the potential to provide surprisingly tight constraints on the set of formulations one can safely apply. To illustrate the application of these techniques to practical examples, we apply our technique to the 2-parameter family of evolution equations proposed by Kidder, Scheel, and Teukolsky, focusing in particular on flat space (in Rindler coordinates) and Schwarzchild (in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates).Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Experimental study of vapor-cell magneto-optical traps for efficient trapping of radioactive atoms

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    We have studied magneto-optical traps (MOTs) for efficient on-line trapping of radioactive atoms. After discussing a model of the trapping process in a vapor cell and its efficiency, we present the results of detailed experimental studies on Rb MOTs. Three spherical cells of different sizes were used. These cells can be easily replaced, while keeping the rest of the apparatus unchanged: atomic sources, vacuum conditions, magnetic field gradients, sizes and power of the laser beams, detection system. By direct comparison, we find that the trapping efficiency only weakly depends on the MOT cell size. It is also found that the trapping efficiency of the MOT with the smallest cell, whose diameter is equal to the diameter of the trapping beams, is about 40% smaller than the efficiency of larger cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the importance of two factors: a long coated tube at the entrance of the MOT cell, used instead of a diaphragm; and the passivation with an alkali vapor of the coating on the cell walls, in order to minimize the losses of trappable atoms. These results guided us in the construction of an efficient large-diameter cell, which has been successfully employed for on-line trapping of Fr isotopes at INFN's national laboratories in Legnaro, Italy.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Simulation of time evolution with the MERA

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    We describe an algorithm to simulate time evolution using the Multi-scale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) and test it by studying a critical Ising chain with periodic boundary conditions and with up to L ~ 10^6 quantum spins. The cost of a simulation, which scales as L log(L), is reduced to log(L) when the system is invariant under translations. By simulating an evolution in imaginary time, we compute the ground state of the system. The errors in the ground state energy display no evident dependence on the system size. The algorithm can be extended to lattice systems in higher spatial dimensions.Comment: final version with data improvement (precision and size), 4.1 pages, 4 figures + extra on X

    Entanglement entropy of two disjoint intervals in c=1 theories

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    We study the scaling of the Renyi entanglement entropy of two disjoint blocks of critical lattice models described by conformal field theories with central charge c=1. We provide the analytic conformal field theory result for the second order Renyi entropy for a free boson compactified on an orbifold describing the scaling limit of the Ashkin-Teller (AT) model on the self-dual line. We have checked this prediction in cluster Monte Carlo simulations of the classical two dimensional AT model. We have also performed extensive numerical simulations of the anisotropic Heisenberg quantum spin-chain with tree-tensor network techniques that allowed to obtain the reduced density matrices of disjoint blocks of the spin-chain and to check the correctness of the predictions for Renyi and entanglement entropies from conformal field theory. In order to match these predictions, we have extrapolated the numerical results by properly taking into account the corrections induced by the finite length of the blocks to the leading scaling behavior.Comment: 37 pages, 23 figure

    Universal parity effects in the entanglement entropy of XX chains with open boundary conditions

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    We consider the Renyi entanglement entropies in the one-dimensional XX spin-chains with open boundary conditions in the presence of a magnetic field. In the case of a semi-infinite system and a block starting from the boundary, we derive rigorously the asymptotic behavior for large block sizes on the basis of a recent mathematical theorem for the determinant of Toeplitz plus Hankel matrices. We conjecture a generalized Fisher-Hartwig form for the corrections to the asymptotic behavior of this determinant that allows the exact characterization of the corrections to the scaling at order o(1/l) for any n. By combining these results with conformal field theory arguments, we derive exact expressions also in finite chains with open boundary conditions and in the case when the block is detached from the boundary.Comment: 24 pages, 9 figure

    Correlation amplitude and entanglement entropy in random spin chains

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    Using strong-disorder renormalization group, numerical exact diagonalization, and quantum Monte Carlo methods, we revisit the random antiferromagnetic XXZ spin-1/2 chain focusing on the long-length and ground-state behavior of the average time-independent spin-spin correlation function C(l)=\upsilon l^{-\eta}. In addition to the well-known universal (disorder-independent) power-law exponent \eta=2, we find interesting universal features displayed by the prefactor \upsilon=\upsilon_o/3, if l is odd, and \upsilon=\upsilon_e/3, otherwise. Although \upsilon_o and \upsilon_e are nonuniversal (disorder dependent) and distinct in magnitude, the combination \upsilon_o + \upsilon_e = -1/4 is universal if C is computed along the symmetric (longitudinal) axis. The origin of the nonuniversalities of the prefactors is discussed in the renormalization-group framework where a solvable toy model is considered. Moreover, we relate the average correlation function with the average entanglement entropy, whose amplitude has been recently shown to be universal. The nonuniversalities of the prefactors are shown to contribute only to surface terms of the entropy. Finally, we discuss the experimental relevance of our results by computing the structure factor whose scaling properties, interestingly, depend on the correlation prefactors.Comment: v1: 16 pages, 15 figures; v2: 17 pages, improved discussions and statistics, references added, published versio
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