11,951 research outputs found

    Discovery and Assessment of New Target Sites for Anti-HIV Therapies

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    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells by endocytosis and takes over parts of the cell’s reaction pathways in order to reproduce itself and spread the infection. One such pathway taken over by HIV becomes the inflammatory pathway which uses Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) as the principal transcription factor. Therefore, knocking out the NF-κB pathway would prevent HIV from reproducing itself. In this report, our goal is to produce a simple model for this pathway with which we can identify potential targets for anti-HIV therapies and test out various hypotheses. We present a very simple model with four coupled first-order ODEs and see what happens if we treat IκK concentration as a parameter that can be controlled (by some unspecified means). In Section 3, we augment this model to account for activation and deactivation of IκK, which is controlled (again, by some unspecified means) by TNF

    Inelastic fingerprints of hydrogen contamination in atomic gold wire systems

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    We present series of first-principles calculations for both pure and hydrogen contaminated gold wire systems in order to investigate how such impurities can be detected. We show how a single H atom or a single H2 molecule in an atomic gold wire will affect forces and Au-Au atom distances under elongation. We further determine the corresponding evolution of the low-bias conductance as well as the inelastic contributions from vibrations. Our results indicate that the conductance of gold wires is only slightly reduced from the conductance quantum G0=2e^2/h by the presence of a single hydrogen impurity, hence making it difficult to use the conductance itself to distinguish between various configurations. On the other hand, our calculations of the inelastic signals predict significant differences between pure and hydrogen contaminated wires, and, importantly, between atomic and molecular forms of the impurity. A detailed characterization of gold wires with a hydrogen impurity should therefore be possible from the strain dependence of the inelastic signals in the conductance.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, Contribution to ICN+T2006, Basel, Switzerland, July-August 200

    Coupling Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond to Superconducting Flux Qubits

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    We propose a method to achieve coherent coupling between Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and superconducting (SC) flux qubits. The resulting coupling can be used to create a coherent interaction between the spin states of distant NV centers mediated by the flux qubit. Furthermore, the magnetic coupling can be used to achieve a coherent transfer of quantum information between the flux qubit and an ensemble of NV centers. This enables a long-term memory for a SC quantum processor and possibly an interface between SC qubits and light.Comment: Accepted in Phys. Rev. Lett. Updated text and Supplementary Material adde

    Finite hadronization time and unitarity in quark recombination model

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    The effect of finite hadronization time is considered in the recombination model, and it is shown that the hadron multiplicity turns out to be proportional to the initial quark density and unitarity is conserved in the model. The baryon to meson ratio increases rapidly with the initial quark density due to competition among different channels.Comment: 4 pages in RevTeX, 3 eps figures, to appear in J. Phys.G as a lette

    Observation of modified hadronization in relativistic Au+Au collisions: a promising signature for deconfined quark-gluon matter

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    Measurements of identified particles from Au+Au collisions at sNN=200\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200 GeV are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on nuclear modification, baryon-to-meson ratios, and elliptic flow at intermediate transverse momentum (1.5<pT<51.5 < p_T < 5 GeV/c). Possible connections between (1) these measurements, (2) the running coupling for static quark anti-quark pairs at finite temperature, and (3) the creation of a deconfined quark-gluon phase are presented. Modifications to hadronization in Au+Au collisions are proposed as a likely signature for the creation of deconfined colored matter.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, invited talk at the Strange Quark Matter 2004 conference, Cape Town, South Afric

    Evidence from Identified Particles for Active Quark and Gluon Degrees of Freedom

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    Measurements of intermediate pT (1.5 < pT < 5.0 GeV/c) identified particle distributions in heavy ion collisions at SPS and RHIC energies display striking dependencies on the number of constituent quarks in the corresponding hadron. One finds that elliptic flow at intermediate pT follows a constituent quark scaling law as predicted by models of hadron formation through coalescence. In addition, baryon production is also found to increase with event multiplicity much faster than meson production. The rate of increase is similar for all baryons, and seemingly independent of mass. This indicates that the number of constituent quarks determines the multiplicity dependence of identified hadron production at intermediate pT. We review these measurements and interpret the experimental findings.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, proceedings for SQM2006 conference in Los Angele

    Hadronization of Dense Partonic Matter

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    The parton recombination model has turned out to be a valuable tool to describe hadronization in high energy heavy ion collisions. I review the model and revisit recent progress in our understanding of hadron correlations. I also discuss higher Fock states in the hadrons, possible violations of the elliptic flow scaling and recombination effects in more dilute systems.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures; plenary talk delivered at SQM 2006, to appear in J. Phys.

    Divergence-type 2+1 dissipative hydrodynamics applied to heavy-ion collisions

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    We apply divergence-type theory (DTT) dissipative hydrodynamics to study the 2+1 space-time evolution of the fireball created in Au+Au relativistic heavy-ion collisions at sNN=\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV. DTTs are exact hydrodynamic theories that do no rely on velocity gradient expansions and therefore go beyond second-order theories. We numerically solve the equations of motion of the DTT for Glauber initial conditions and compare the results with those of second-order theory based on conformal invariants (BRSS) and with data. We find that the charged-hadron minumum-bias elliptic flow reaches its maximum value at lower pTp_T in the DTT, and that the DTT allows for a value of η/s\eta/s slightly larger than that of the BRSS. Our results show that the differences between viscous hydrodynamic formalisms are a significant source of uncertainty in the precise extraction of η/s\eta/s from experiments.Comment: v4: 29 pages, 12 figures, minor changes. Final version as published in Phys. Rev.
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