1,103 research outputs found

    Direct Detection of Non-Chiral Dark Matter

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    Direct detection experiments rule out fermion dark matter that is a chiral representation of the electroweak gauge group. Non-chiral real, complex and singlet representations, however, provide viable fermion dark matter candidates. Although any one of these candidates will be virtually impossible to detect at the LHC, it is shown that they may be detected at future planned direct detection experiments. For the real case, an irreducible radiative coupling to quarks may allow a detection. The complex case in general has an experimentally ruled out tree-level coupling to quarks via Z-boson exchange. However, in the case of two SU(2)_L doublets, a higher dimensional coupling to the Higgs can suppress this coupling, and a remaining irreducible radiative coupling may allow a detection. Singlet dark matter could be detected through a coupling to quarks via Higgs exchange. Since all non-chiral dark matter can have a coupling to the Higgs, at least some of its mass can be obtained from electroweak symmetry breaking, and this mass is a useful characterization of its direct detection cross-section.Comment: 22 pages, 3 figures. References added. Minor corrections to match published versio

    Signatures of sub-GeV dark matter beams at neutrino experiments

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    We study the high-luminosity fixed-target neutrino experiments at MiniBooNE, MINOS and T2K and analyze their sensitivity to light stable states, focusing on MeV--GeV scale dark matter. Thermal relic dark matter scenarios in the sub-GeV mass range require the presence of light mediators, whose coupling to the Standard Model facilitates annihilation in the early universe and allows for the correct thermal relic abundance. The mediators in turn provide a production channel for dark matter at colliders or fixed targets, and as a consequence the neutrino beams generated at fixed targets may contain an additional beam of light dark matter. The signatures of this beam include elastic scattering off electrons or nucleons in the (near-)detector, which closely mimics the neutral current scattering of neutrinos. We determine the event rate at modern fixed target facilities and the ensuing sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter.Comment: 18 pages, 13 figures, revtex4-

    Selfish Dark Matter

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    We present a mechanism where a particle asymmetry in one sector is used to generate an asymmetry in another sector. The two sectors are not coupled through particle number violating interactions and are not required to be in thermal contact with each other. When this mechanism is applied to baryogenesis in asymmetric dark matter models, we find that the dark matter particles can be extremely light, e.g. much lighter than an eV, and that in some cases there is no need to annihilate away the symmetric component of dark matter. We discuss a concrete realization of the mechanism with signals in direct detection, at the LHC, at BB-factories or future beam dump experiments.Comment: 18+5 pages, 2 figures; Journal version: Added references, small changes to the free-streaming length estimate

    Altitude Performance and Operational Characteristics of an XT38-A-2 Turboprop Engine

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    The overall engine performance and the starting and windmilling characteristics of an XT38-A-2 turboprop engine have been investigated in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. The simulated flight conditions ranged from altitudes of 5000 to 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.30 and from Mach numbers of 0.301 to 0.557 at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The engine, equipped with a standard-area exhaust nozzle, was operated with independent control of fuel flow and propeller pitch; operation was thereby allowed over a wide range of engine conditions. Windmilling characteristics were obtained at altitudes of 15,000 feet and 35,000 feet. Analysis of the performance maps obtained at each flight condition revealed that both altitude and flight Mach number had a major effect on corrected engine variables. The large reductions in corrected shaft horsepower occurring when the altitude was increased were the result of decreases in compressor and turbine efficiencies. Windmilling engine starts were made at altitudes as high as 35,000 feet at an engine speed of 2000 rpm

    Two Loop R-Symmetry Breaking

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    We analyze two loop quantum corrections for pseudomoduli in O'Raifeartaigh like models. We argue that R-symmetry can be spontaneously broken at two loop in non supersymmetric vacua. We provide a basic example with this property. We discuss on phenomenological applications.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, JHEP3.cls, reference adde

    An Electron Fixed Target Experiment to Search for a New Vector Boson A' Decaying to e+e-

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    We describe an experiment to search for a new vector boson A' with weak coupling alpha' > 6 x 10^{-8} alpha to electrons (alpha=e^2/4pi) in the mass range 65 MeV < m_A' < 550 MeV. New vector bosons with such small couplings arise naturally from a small kinetic mixing of the "dark photon" A' with the photon -- one of the very few ways in which new forces can couple to the Standard Model -- and have received considerable attention as an explanation of various dark matter related anomalies. A' bosons are produced by radiation off an electron beam, and could appear as narrow resonances with small production cross-section in the trident e+e- spectrum. We summarize the experimental approach described in a proposal submitted to Jefferson Laboratory's PAC35, PR-10-009. This experiment, the A' Experiment (APEX), uses the electron beam of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory (CEBAF) at energies of ~1-4 GeV incident on 0.5-10% radiation length Tungsten wire mesh targets, and measures the resulting e+e- pairs to search for the A' using the High Resolution Spectrometer and the septum magnet in Hall A. With a ~1 month run, APEX will achieve very good sensitivity because the statistics of e+e- pairs will be ~10,000 times larger in the explored mass range than any previous search for the A' boson. These statistics and the excellent mass resolution of the spectrometers allow sensitivity to alpha'/alpha one to three orders of magnitude below current limits, in a region of parameter space of great theoretical and phenomenological interest. Similar experiments could also be performed at other facilities, such as the Mainz Microtron.Comment: 19 pages, 12 figures, 2 table

    Jet diffuser for simulating ram conditions on a turbojet-engine static test stand

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    A jet diffuser for simulating flight or ram conditions on a turbojet-engine static test stand was designed and investigated. The diffuser utilizes the kinetic energy of the jet from a turbojet engine to reduce the discharge pressure at the exhaust nozzle and thereby provides simulated ram-pressure ratios across the engine. The engine exhaust nozzle discharges into an exhaust chamber (flexibly sealed to the tail pipe), which is connected to a diffuser by a bell-shaped nozzle. The pressure in the exhaust chamber is controlled independently of engine speed by a variable-area shutter at the diffuser discharge. The jet diffuser simulated ram-pressure ratios from 0.95 to 2.2 at various simulated pressure altitudes for a range of engine speeds from 85 to 100 percent of maximum rpm. Agreement of data obtained with and without the jet diffuser for a ram-pressure ratio of 1.0 indicated that the presence of the diffuser did not interfere with the flow through the engine exhaust-nozzle outlet

    Adventures in Paragraph Writing: The Development and Refinement of Scalable and Effective Writing Exercises for Large-enrollment Engineering Courses

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    Adventures in paragraph writing: the development and refinement of scalable and effective writing exercises for large enrollment engineering courses. The ability to communicate effectively is a highly desirable attribute for today’s graduating engineers. Additionally, the inclusion of communication components in technical courses has been shown to enhance learning of technical content and can be leveraged to satisfy non-technical learning outcomes. However, the incorporation of such components in undergraduate engineering curricula remains challenging due to resource limitations, credit hour crunches, and other issues. This paper presents the design considerations and preliminary results from our ongoing work to create an effective, transferrable, low-overhead approach to paragraph writing exercises suitable for inclusion in any large engineering course. Key considerations in the development of these exercises include: identification of the motivations and learning outcomes for each exercise; development and tailoring of writing prompts (questions) appropriate for these outcomes; and the development and implementation of an assessment and feedback strategy,including resource-efficient grading rubrics and techniques.Results are reported from the application of the paragraph writing exercise in a large civil engineering undergraduate fluid mechanics course (120 students; approximately 15 assignments). A primary focus of this first application centered on two key components that must be refined in order for the exercise to be effective and transferrable: (1) the selection of writing prompts, and (2) assessment and feedback. Analysis of student paragraphs highlights the importance of the writing prompts in the success of the exercise, indicating that specific word choice, question focus, and supplemental instruction greatly affected the level of writing students submitted. Some writing prompts were selected to address and enhance technical content in the course, while other writing prompts were developed to broaden student awareness of engineering in societal, environmental, and global contexts. In addition to developing productive writing prompts, the assessment and feedback strategies were evaluated using student surveys and feedback. While minimal marking and holistic rubric assessment methods proved effective from a grading resource standpoint, students were frustrated by the lack of feedback associated with these techniques and uncomfortable with the holistic grading rubric. Data from student surveys point to the importance of giving meaningful feedback to students, and providing them with opportunities to revise their written submissions. Student surveys also highlighted an unforeseen obstacle to the exercise: student resistance to writing in technical courses. We provide several suggestions for overcoming student resistance, as well as improved assessment and feedback strategies that better meet student needs while still not over-burdening instructors and teaching assistants
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