13,684 research outputs found

    Maneuvering and vibration control of flexible spacecraft

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    Equations of motion, control strategy, perturbation, rigid-body maneuvers, quasi-modal equations, and vibration control are discussed for flexible spacecraft

    In-flight Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer Measurements on a Hollow Cylinder at a Mach Number of 3.0

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    Skin temperatures, shearing forces, surface static pressures, and boundary layer pitot pressures and total temperatures were measured on a hollow cylinder 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 and at wall-to-recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The free stream Reynolds number had a minimal value of 4.2 million per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. Boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor of 1.11 was obtained from the measured heat transfer and skin friction data. The skin friction coefficients predicted by the theory of van Driest were in excellent agreement with the measurements. Theoretical heat transfer coefficients, in the form of Stanton numbers calculated by using a modified Reynolds analogy between skin friction and heat transfer, were compared with measured values. The measured velocity profiles were compared to Coles' incompressible law-of-the-wall profile

    Preliminary Results of Aerodynamic Heating Studies on the X-15 Airplane

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    Aerodynamic heating analysis of X-15 aircraft in fligh

    Study of storm time fluxes of heavy ions

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    Ion composition data sets from Lockheed instruments on a variety of spacecraft were used in combination with each other and with data from other instruments to address a variety of problems regarding plasma sources, energization and transport within the magnetosphere. The availability of data from several differing orbits has given a highly flexible approach to attacking the continually evolving questions of magnetospheric physics. This approach is very successful and should be continued in the future

    Reentry heating analysis of space shuttle with comparison of flight data

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    Surface heating rates and surface temperatures for a space shuttle reentry profile were calculated for two wing cross sections and one fuselage cross section. Heating rates and temperatures at 12 locations on the wing and 6 locations on the fuselage are presented. The heating on the lower wing was most severe, with peak temperatures reaching values of 1240 C for turbulent flow and 900 C for laminar flow. For the fuselage, the most severe heating occured on the lower glove surface where peak temperatures of 910 C and 700 C were calculated for turbulent flow and laminar flow, respectively. Aluminum structural temperatures were calculated using a finite difference thermal analyzer computer program, and the predicted temperatures are compared to measured flight data. Skin temperatures measured on the lower surface of the wing and bay 1 of the upper surface of the wing agreed best with temperatures calculated assuming laminar flow. The measured temperatures at bays two and four on the upper surface of the wing were in quite good agreement with the temperatures calculated assuming separated flow. The measured temperatures on the lower forward spar cap of bay four were in good agreement with values predicted assuming laminar flow

    Reentry heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter

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    A structural performance and resizing finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the reentry heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle. Two typical wing cross sections and a midfuselage cross section were selected for the analysis. The surface heat inputs to the thermal models were obtained from aerodynamic heating analyses, which assumed a purely turbulent boundary layer, a purely laminar boundary layer, separated flow, and transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The effect of internal radiation was found to be quite significant. With the effect of the internal radiation considered, the wing lower skin temperature became about 39 C (70 F) lower. The results were compared with fight data for space transportation system, trajectory 1. The calculated and measured temperatures compared well for the wing if laminar flow was assumed for the lower surface and bay one upper surface and if separated flow was assumed for the upper surfaces of bays other than bay one. For the fuselage, good agreement between the calculated and measured data was obtained if laminar flow was assumed for the bottom surface. The structural temperatures were found to reach their peak values shortly before touchdown. In addition, the finite element solutions were compared with those obtained from the conventional finite difference solutions

    Identification and control of structures in space

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    The derivation of the equations of motion for the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) is reported and the equations of motion of a similar structure orbiting the earth are also derived. The structure is assumed to undergo large rigid-body maneuvers and small elastic deformations. A perturbation approach is proposed whereby the quantities defining the rigid-body maneuver are assumed to be relatively large, with the elastic deformations and deviations from the rigid-body maneuver being relatively small. The perturbation equations have the form of linear equations with time-dependent coefficients. An active control technique can then be formulated to permit maneuvering of the spacecraft and simultaneously suppressing the elastic vibration

    An 8.4-GHz dual-maser front-end system for Parkes reimplementation

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    An 8.4-GHz front-end system consisting of a feedhorn, a waveguide feed assembly, dual masers, and downconverters was reimplemented at Parkes as part of the Parkes Canberra Telemetry Array for the Voyager Neptune encounter. The front-end system was originally assembled by the European Space Agency and installed on the Parkes antenna for the Giotto project. It was also used on a time-sharing basis by the Deep Space Network as part of the Parkes Canberra Telemetry Array to enhance the data return from the Voyager Uranus encounter. At the conclusion of these projects in 1986, part of the system was then shipped to JPL on loan for reimplementation at Parkes for the Voyager Neptune encounter. New design and implementation required to make the system operable at Parkes included new microwave front-end control cabinets, closed-cycle refrigeration monitor system, noise-adding radiometer system, front-end controller assembly, X81 local oscillator multiplier, and refurbishment of the original dual 8.4-GHz traveling-wave masers and waveguide feed system. The front-end system met all requirements during the encounter and was disassembled in October 1989 and returned to JPL
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