4,013 research outputs found

    Multi-level Feature Fusion-based CNN for Local Climate Zone Classification from Sentinel-2 Images: Benchmark Results on the So2Sat LCZ42 Dataset

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    As a unique classification scheme for urban forms and functions, the local climate zone (LCZ) system provides essential general information for any studies related to urban environments, especially on a large scale. Remote sensing data-based classification approaches are the key to large-scale mapping and monitoring of LCZs. The potential of deep learning-based approaches is not yet fully explored, even though advanced convolutional neural networks (CNNs) continue to push the frontiers for various computer vision tasks. One reason is that published studies are based on different datasets, usually at a regional scale, which makes it impossible to fairly and consistently compare the potential of different CNNs for real-world scenarios. This study is based on the big So2Sat LCZ42 benchmark dataset dedicated to LCZ classification. Using this dataset, we studied a range of CNNs of varying sizes. In addition, we proposed a CNN to classify LCZs from Sentinel-2 images, Sen2LCZ-Net. Using this base network, we propose fusing multi-level features using the extended Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. With this proposed simple network architecture and the highly competitive benchmark dataset, we obtain results that are better than those obtained by the state-of-the-art CNNs, while requiring less computation with fewer layers and parameters. Large-scale LCZ classification examples of completely unseen areas are presented, demonstrating the potential of our proposed Sen2LCZ-Net-MF as well as the So2Sat LCZ42 dataset. We also intensively investigated the influence of network depth and width and the effectiveness of the design choices made for Sen2LCZ-Net-MF. Our work will provide important baselines for future CNN-based algorithm developments for both LCZ classification and other urban land cover land use classification

    An open reading frame upstream from the nifH gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    An open reading frame upstream from nifHDK operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae had been described. The orientation of this open reading frame is opposite to that of nifHDK and sequence homology was found between the open reading frame promoter and the promoter of nifHDK operon. A recombinant plasmid carrying the promoter region of the open reading frame fused to the beta-galactosidase gene was constructed. Strains of E.coli were transformed with the plasmid containing this open reading frame promoter-lacZ fusion or co-transformed with it and a plasmid carrying the nifA gene. An appreciable activity of beta-galactosidase was found in strains which received both plasmids, indicating that the promoter of the open reading frame can be activated by the product of nifA gene. Thus, the open reading frame found between nifHDK operon and nifJ behaves just like other nif genes of K.pneumoniae in requiring the product of nifA as the positive effector for expression

    Non-local Attention Optimized Deep Image Compression

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    This paper proposes a novel Non-Local Attention Optimized Deep Image Compression (NLAIC) framework, which is built on top of the popular variational auto-encoder (VAE) structure. Our NLAIC framework embeds non-local operations in the encoders and decoders for both image and latent feature probability information (known as hyperprior) to capture both local and global correlations, and apply attention mechanism to generate masks that are used to weigh the features for the image and hyperprior, which implicitly adapt bit allocation for different features based on their importance. Furthermore, both hyperpriors and spatial-channel neighbors of the latent features are used to improve entropy coding. The proposed model outperforms the existing methods on Kodak dataset, including learned (e.g., Balle2019, Balle2018) and conventional (e.g., BPG, JPEG2000, JPEG) image compression methods, for both PSNR and MS-SSIM distortion metrics