90 research outputs found

    Effects of Desulfurization Processes on Polybrominated Dibenzo‑<i>p</i>‑dioxin and Dibenzofuran Emissions from Iron Ore Sintering

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    Installing desulfurization operations and closing outdated facilities can effectively decrease pollutant emissions from iron ore sintering plants (IOSPs). Polybrominated dibenzo-<i>p</i>-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) emissions from different-sized IOSPs with different desulfurization operations were analyzed. The desulfurization operations’ PBDD/F removal efficiencies were 53.6%–97.1%, and were higher for wet desulfurization operations than for semidry and dry operations. The removed PBDD/Fs were transferred to the desulfurization products. The removal efficiencies of PBDF homologues increased with the degree of bromination. A PBDD/F emission inventory for Chinese IOSPs was compiled. PBDD/F emissions in stack gases, desulfurization products, and discarded fly ash (previously ignored) from 2003 to 2015 were 1218, 400, and 245 g toxic equivalents, respectively. PBDD/F concentrations in stack gases and fly ash were higher for small IOSPs (<90 m<sup>2</sup>), indicating the importance of phasing them out. Indeed, in China, such phasing out decreased PBDD/F emissions in stack gases, desulfurization products, and discarded fly ash by 1021, 891, and 3253 g toxic equivalents, respectively, between 2003 and 2015. PBDD/F emissions in stack gases have been controlled in Chinese regions with the highest emissions, but PBDD/F emissions in desulfurization products and fly ash are increasing

    <i>De Novo</i> Transcriptome Analysis of an Aerial Microalga <i>Trentepohlia jolithus:</i> Pathway Description and Gene Discovery for Carbon Fixation and Carotenoid Biosynthesis

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Algae in the order Trentepohliales have a broad geographic distribution and are generally characterized by the presence of abundant β-carotene. The many monographs published to date have mainly focused on their morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and reproduction; molecular studies of this order are still rare. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology provides a powerful and efficient method for transcript analysis and gene discovery in <i>Trentepohlia jolithus</i>.</p><p>Methods/Principal Findings</p><p>Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing generated 55,007,830 Illumina PE raw reads, which were assembled into 41,328 assembled unigenes. Based on NR annotation, 53.28% of the unigenes (22,018) could be assigned to gene ontology classes with 54 subcategories and 161,451 functional terms. A total of 26,217 (63.44%) assembled unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, a set of 5,798 SSRs in 5,206 unigenes and 131,478 putative SNPs were identified. Moreover, the fact that all of the C4 photosynthesis genes exist in <i>T. jolithus</i> suggests a complex carbon acquisition and fixation system. Similarities and differences between <i>T. jolithus</i> and other algae in carotenoid biosynthesis are also described in depth.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>This is the first broad transcriptome survey for <i>T. jolithus</i>, increasing the amount of molecular data available for the class Ulvophyceae. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the functional genes and putative pathways identified here will contribute to a better understanding of carbon fixation and fatty acid and carotenoid biosynthesis in <i>T. jolithus</i>.</p></div

    Putative pathway of carbon fixation in <i>T. jolithus</i>, generated by KEGG.

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    <p>The numbers within the small boxes are enzyme codes. The boxes with a red border are enzymes identified in this study. The boxes with a black border are enzymes not identified in this study.</p

    Determination of carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in <i>T. jolithus</i>.

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    <p>Determination of carotenoid and chlorophyll contents in <i>T. jolithus</i>.</p

    Summary of putative SNPs found in <i>T. jolithus</i> unigenes.

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    <p>Summary of putative SNPs found in <i>T. jolithus</i> unigenes.</p

    Insight into the impact of environments on structure of chimera C3 of human β-defensins 2 and 3 from molecular dynamics simulations

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    <div><p>C3 is a chimera from human β-defensins 2 and 3 and possesses higher antimicrobial activity compared with its parental molecules, so it is an attractive candidate for clinical application of antimicrobial peptides. In continuation with the previous studies, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for further investigating the effect of ambient environments (temperature and bacterial membrane) on C3 dynamics. Our results reveal that C3 has higher flexibility, larger intensity of motion, and more relevant secondary structural changes at 363 K to adapt the high temperature and maintain its antimicrobial activity, comparison with it at 293 K; when C3 molecule associates with the bacterial membrane, it slightly fluctuates and undergoes local conformational changes; in summary, C3 molecule demonstrates stable conformations under these environments. Furthermore, MD results analysis show that the hydrophobic contacts, the hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds in the peptide are responsible for maintaining its stable conformation. In addition, our simulation shows that C3 peptides can make anionic lipids clustered in the bacterial membrane; it means that positive charges and pronounced regional cationic charge density of C3 are most key factors for its antimicrobial activity.</p></div

    Rocks covered with red <i>T. jolithus</i>.

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    <p>(A) Red-Stone-Valley in winter. (B) Reddish stones along rivers. (C) Microscopic structure of dried <i>T. jolithus</i>. (D) Microscopic structure of rehydrated <i>T. jolithus</i> after a few drops of water was added to the dried material.</p

    Summary of sequence analysis.

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    <p>Summary of sequence analysis.</p

    Characteristics of similarity search of unigenes against NR database.

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    <p>(A) E-value distribution of BLAST hits for each unigene with a cutoff E-value of 1.0E-5. (B) Similarity distribution of the top BLAST hit for each unigene. (C) Species distribution of the top BLAST hit for each unigene in the NR database.</p

    Clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional classification.

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    <p>In total, 22,921 of the 41,328 sequences with an NR hit were grouped into 25 COG classifications.</p
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