29,800 research outputs found

### Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity
distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four
elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion
profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the
predictions of f=f(E,L_z) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter.
Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our
measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four
galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.Comment: 15 pages, uuencoded compressed PostScript, includes 3 figure

### Relative Entropy: Free Energy Associated with Equilibrium Fluctuations and Nonequilibrium Deviations

Using a one-dimensional macromolecule in aqueous solution as an illustration,
we demonstrate that the relative entropy from information theory, $\sum_k
p_k\ln(p_k/p_k^*)$, has a natural role in the energetics of equilibrium and
nonequilibrium conformational fluctuations of the single molecule. It is
identified as the free energy difference associated with a fluctuating density
in equilibrium, and is associated with the distribution deviate from the
equilibrium in nonequilibrium relaxation. This result can be generalized to any
other isothermal macromolecular systems using the mathematical theories of
large deviations and Markov processes, and at the same time provides the
well-known mathematical results with an interesting physical interpretations.Comment: 5 page

### The Dynamics of Zeroth-Order Ultrasensitivity: A Critical Phenomenon in Cell Biology

It is well known since the pioneering work of Goldbeter and Koshland [Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 78, pp. 6840-6844 (1981)] that cellular
phosphorylation- dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), catalyzed by kinase and
phosphatase under saturated condition with zeroth order enzyme kinetics,
exhibits ultrasensitivity, sharp transition. We analyse the dynamics aspects of
the zeroth order PdPC kinetics and show a critical slowdown akin to the phase
transition in condensed matter physics. We demonstrate that an extremely
simple, though somewhat mathematically "singular" model is a faithful
representation of the ultrasentivity phenomenon. The simplified mathematical
model will be valuable, as a component, in developing complex cellular
signaling network theory as well as having a pedagogic value.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure

### Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory with Ultrasoft Pseudopotential: Real-Time Electron Propagation across Molecular Junction

A practical computational scheme based on time-dependent density functional
theory (TDDFT) and ultrasoft pseudopotential (USPP) is developed to study
electron dynamics in real time. A modified Crank-Nicolson time-stepping
algorithm is adopted, under planewave basis. The scheme is validated by
calculating the optical absorption spectra for sodium dimer and benzene
molecule. As an application of this USPP-TDDFT formalism, we compute the time
evolution of a test electron packet at the Fermi energy of the left metallic
lead crossing a benzene-(1,4)-dithiolate junction. A transmission probability
of 5-7%, corresponding to a conductance of 4.0-5.6muS, is obtained. These
results are consistent with complex band structure estimates, and Green's
function calculation results at small bias voltages

### Supernovae versus Neutron Star Mergers as the Major r-Process Sources

I show that recent observations of r-process abundances in metal-poor stars
are difficult to explain if neutron star mergers (NSMs) are the major r-process
sources. In contrast, such observations and meteoritic data on Hf182 and I129
in the early solar system support a self-consistent picture of r-process
enrichment by supernovae (SNe). While further theoretical studies of r-process
production and enrichment are needed for both SNe and NSMs, I emphasize two
possible direct observational tests of the SN r-process model: gamma rays from
decay of r-process nuclei in SN remnants and surface contamination of the
companion by SN r-process ejecta in binaries.Comment: 5 pages, to appear in ApJ

### Resonant Neutrino Spin-Flavor Precession and Supernova Nucleosynthesis and Dynamics

We discuss the effects of resonant spin-flavor precession (RSFP) of Majorana
neutrinos on heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-heated supernova ejecta
and the dynamics of supernovae. In assessing the effects of RSFP, we explicitly
include matter-enhanced (MSW) resonant neutrino flavor conversion effects where
appropriate. We point out that for plausible ranges of neutrino magnetic
moments and proto-neutron star magnetic fields, spin-flavor conversion of
$\nu_\tau$ (or $\nu_\mu$) with a cosmologically significant mass (1--100 eV)
into a light $\bar \nu_e$ could lead to an enhanced neutron excess in
neutrino-heated supernova ejecta. This could be beneficial for models of
$r$-process nucleosynthesis associated with late-time neutrino-heated ejecta
from supernovae. Similar spin-flavor conversion of neutrinos at earlier epochs
could lead to an increased shock reheating rate and, concomitantly, a larger
supernova explosion energy. We show, however, that such increased neutrino
heating likely will be accompanied by an enhanced neutron excess which could
exacerbate the problem of the overproduction of the neutron number $N = 50$
nuclei in the supernova ejecta from this stage. In all of these scenarios, the
average $\bar\nu_e$ energy will be increased over those predicted by supernova
models with no neutrino mixings. This may allow the SN1987a data to constrain
RSFP-based schemes.Comment: Latex file, 33 pages including 11 figures, uses psfig.sty, minor
changes about wording and clarification of the text, to be published in Phys.
Rev.

### Emergence of Fermi pockets in an excitonic CDW melted novel superconductor

A superconducting (SC) state (Tc ~ 4.2K) has very recently been observed upon
successful doping of the CDW ordered triangular lattice TiSe$_2$, with copper.
Using high resolution photoemission spectroscopy we identify, for the first
time, the momentum space locations of the doped electrons that form the Fermi
sea of the parent superconductor. With doping, we find that the kinematic
nesting volume increases whereas the coherence of the CDW order sharply drops.
In the superconducting doping, we observe the emergence of a large density of
states in the form of a narrow electron pocket near the \textit{L}-point of the
Brillouin Zone with \textit{d}-like character. The \textit{k}-space electron
distributions highlight the unconventional interplay of CDW to SC cross-over
achieved through non-magnetic copper doping.Comment: 4+ pages, 5 figures; Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
(2007

### Semimetal to semimetal charge density wave transition in 1T-TiSe$_2$

We report an infrared study on 1$T$-TiSe$_2$, the parent compound of the
newly discovered superconductor Cu$_x$TiSe$_2$. Previous studies of this
compound have not conclusively resolved whether it is a semimetal or a
semiconductor: information that is important in determining the origin of its
unconventional CDW transition. Here we present optical spectroscopy results
that clearly reveal that the compound is metallic in both the high-temperature
normal phase and the low-temperature CDW phase. The carrier scattering rate is
dramatically different in the normal and CDW phases and the carrier density is
found to change with temperature. We conclude that the observed properties can
be explained within the scenario of an Overhauser-type CDW mechanism.Comment: 4 pages, 4 page

### Anyon Wave Function for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

An anyon wave function (characterized by the statistical factor $n$)
projected onto the lowest Landau level is derived for the fractional quantum
Hall effect states at filling factor $\nu = n/(2pn+1)$ ($p$ and $n$ are
integers). We study the properties of the anyon wave function by using detailed
Monte Carlo simulations in disk geometry and show that the anyon ground-state
energy is a lower bound to the composite fermion one.Comment: Reference adde

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