50 research outputs found

### Periodically-driven cold atoms: the role of the phase

Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have investigated the dynamics
of cold atoms subjected to time periodic fields. Novel effects dependent on the
amplitude and frequency of the driving field, such as Coherent Destruction of
Tunneling have been identified and observed. However, in the last year or so,
three distinct types of experiments have demonstrated for the first time,
interesting behaviour associated with the driving phase: i.e. for systems
experiencing a driving field of general form $V(x)\sin (\omega t + \phi)$,
different types of large scale oscillations and directed motion were observed.
We investigate and explain the phenomenon of Super-Bloch Oscillations (SBOs) in
relation to the other experiments and address the role of initial phase in
general. We analyse and compare the role of $\phi$ in systems with homogeneous
forces ($V'(x)= const$), such as cold atoms in shaken or amplitude-modulated
optical lattices, as well as non-homogeneous forces ($V'(x)\neq const$), such
as the sloshing of atoms in driven traps, and clarify the physical origin of
the different $\phi$-dependent effects.Comment: 10 pages, 1 figur

### Atomic motion in tilted optical lattices

This paper presents a formalism describing the dynamics of a quantum particle
in a one-dimensional, time-dependent, tilted lattice. The formalism uses the
Wannier-Stark states, which are localized in each site of the lattice, and
provides a simple framework allowing fully-analytical developments. Analytic
solutions describing the particle motion are explicit derived, and the
resulting dynamics is studied.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figs, submitted to EPJD, Springer Verlag styl

### Wavepacket reconstruction via local dynamics in a parabolic lattice

We study the dynamics of a wavepacket in a potential formed by the sum of a
periodic lattice and of a parabolic potential. The dynamics of the wavepacket
is essentially a superposition of ``local Bloch oscillations'', whose frequency
is proportional to the local slope of the parabolic potential. We show that the
amplitude and the phase of the Fourier transform of a signal characterizing
this dynamics contains information about the amplitude and the phase of the
wavepacket at a given lattice site. Hence, {\em complete} reconstruction of the
the wavepacket in the real space can be performed from the study of the
dynamics of the system.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, RevTex

### Damped Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in optical lattices

The paper studies Bloch oscillations of cold neutral atoms in the optical
lattice. The effect of spontaneous emission on the dynamics of the system is
analyzed both analytically and numerically. The spontaneous emission is shown
to cause (i) the decay of Bloch oscillations with the decrement given by the
rate of spontaneous emission and (ii) the diffusive spreading of the atoms with
a diffusion coefficient depending on {\em both} the rate of spontaneous
emission and the Bloch frequency.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figure

### Dynamics of one-dimensional tight-binding models with arbitrary time-dependent external homogeneous fields

The exact propagators of two one-dimensional systems with time-dependent
external fields are presented by following the path-integral method. It is
shown that the Bloch acceleration theorem can be generalized to the
impulse-momentum theorem in quantum version. We demonstrate that an evolved
Gaussian wave packet always keeps its shape in an arbitrary time-dependent
homogeneous driven field. Moreover, that stopping and accelerating of a wave
packet can be achieved by the pulsed field in a diabatic way.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figure

### Optical lattice quantum simulator for QED in strong external fields: spontaneous pair creation and the Sauter-Schwinger effect

Spontaneous creation of electron-positron pairs out of the vacuum due to a
strong electric field is a spectacular manifestation of the relativistic
energy-momentum relation for the Dirac fermions. This fundamental prediction of
Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has not yet been confirmed experimentally as the
generation of a sufficiently strong electric field extending over a large
enough space-time volume still presents a challenge. Surprisingly, distant
areas of physics may help us to circumvent this difficulty. In condensed matter
and solid state physics (areas commonly considered as low energy physics), one
usually deals with quasi-particles instead of real electrons and positrons.
Since their mass gap can often be freely tuned, it is much easier to create
these light quasi-particles by an analogue of the Sauter-Schwinger effect. This
motivates our proposal of a quantum simulator in which excitations of
ultra-cold atoms moving in a bichromatic optical lattice represent particles
and antiparticles (holes) satisfying a discretized version of the Dirac
equation together with fermionic anti-commutation relations. Using the language
of second quantization, we are able to construct an analogue of the spontaneous
pair creation which can be realized in an (almost) table-top experiment.Comment: 21 pages, 10 figure

### The nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the delta-comb potential: quasi-classical chaos and bifurcations of periodic stationary solutions

The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is studied for a periodic sequence of
delta-potentials (a delta-comb) or narrow Gaussian potentials. For the
delta-comb the time-independent nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be solved
analytically in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions and thus provides useful
insight into the features of nonlinear stationary states of periodic
potentials. Phenomena well-known from classical chaos are found, such as a
bifurcation of periodic stationary states and a transition to spatial chaos.
The relation of new features of nonlinear Bloch bands, such as looped and
period doubled bands, are analyzed in detail. An analytic expression for the
critical nonlinearity for the emergence of looped bands is derived. The results
for the delta-comb are generalized to a more realistic potential consisting of
a periodic sequence of narrow Gaussian peaks and the dynamical stability of
periodic solutions in a Gaussian comb is discussed.Comment: Enhanced and revised version, to appear in J. Nonlin. Math. Phy

### Mammalian cell sensitivity to hyperthermia in various cell lines: a new universal and predictive description

Introduction The Cumulative Equivalent Minute at 43 °C (CEM43) thermal dose model has been empirically derived more than 30 years ago and still serves as a benchmark for hyperthermia protocols despite the advent of regulatory network models. However, CEM43 suffers from several limitations regarding its inability to predict the effect of complex time varying profiles (thermotolerance, step-down heating), to predict synergistic effects with drug treatments or to explain the specificity of a cell line in thermal resistance. Objective Define a new generic predictive tool for thermal injury based on regulatory network models. Identify the biological parameters that account for the thermal resistance. Materials Comparative study of cell survival upon hyperthermia collected from literature (17 sets in 11 publications that cover 14 different cell lines from 8 different tissues). Results A dynamical model describes accurately cell survival according to the amplitude and duration of exposure but also molecular chaperone expression level. In the case of square shape hyperthermia, approximated analytical expression of the cell survival is derived from the dynamical model and compared to CEM43 description. The molecular chaperone expression level defines the thermal resistance of a given cell line and can be estimated from a single experimental result through an easy-to-use graphical tool. Conclusion The tools offered here can be useful for designing treatments combining hyperthermia and chemotherapy targeting molecular chaperones, but also for designing personalized hyperthermic treatment by prior biochemical screening of molecular chaperones. These tools could advantageously replace the description of CEM43

### Dynamical thermal dose models and dose time-profile effects

International audienceIntroduction:Models of dose-effect relationships seek systematic and predictive descriptions of how cell survival depends on the level and duration of the stressor. The CEM43 thermal dose model has been empirically derived more than thirty years ago and still serves as a benchmark for hyperthermia protocols despitethe advent of regulatory network models.Objective:In this paper, we propose and realize a simple experimental test to assess whether mech-anistic models can prove more reliable indicators for some protocols. We define two time-asymmetric hyperthermia profiles, faster rise than decay or slower rise than decay, for which the CEM43 model predicts the same survival while a regulatory network model predicts significant differences.Materials:Experimental data (both control 37°C and hyperthermia assays) were collected from duplicate HeLa cell cultures. Cells were imaged before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the hyperthermia assay doubl -stained with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled annexin V and propidium iodide fordetecting cell death.Results:Survival experiments of HeLa cells show that a fast temperature rise followed by a slow decay can be twice more lethal than the opposite, consistently with the prediction of the network model.Conclusions:Using a model reduction approach, we obtained a simple nonlinear dynamic equation that identifies the limited repair capacity as the main factor underlying the dose-asymmetry effect and that could be useful for refining thermal doses for dynamic protocols

### Converting Zitterbewegung oscillation to directed motion

10.1209/0295-5075/96/10004EPL961