94 research outputs found

    Feature Extraction and Classification of Welding Defects using Artificial Neural Network

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    The detection and classification of the defects in the welded components are very important in order to ensure the structural integrity of the fabricated components of the test blanket module (TBM). RAFM steel is used as structural material for the TBM, therefore ultrasonic based technique are the most suitable for high sensitive defect detection. In this work ultrasonic pulse echo technique is used to perform the experiment and the ANNs (artificial neural networks) technique is used to detection and classification of the defects in the welded region. For this study, artificial defect (Side drilled hole, notch and flat bottom hole) are fabricated in the welded region. In this paper this data acquisition from different type of defects and extraction of feature from these signal are discussed. Artificial neural network will be used for the classification of the defects

    Childhood obesity and socio-economic class

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    Background: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. There are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major role in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. The aim of this study was to compare the obesity status of children (5-18 years) from the upper and middle socio-economic class.Methods: 400 children (200 boys and 200 girls) in the age group of 5-18 years from upper and middle socio-economic status (According to the modified version of Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic status scale) were selected as subjects for this study. Weight and height were measured in minimum acceptable standard clothing without shoes and socks and BMI was calculated. Because there are changes in body weight and height with age, BMI levels among children and teens need to be expressed relative to other children of the same age and sex. Number of children in each BMI-for-age-percentile-range were calculated. By using chi–square test an association of overweight/obesity with socio-economic class was studied in children.Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was more in upper socio-economic class boys in comparison with middle socio-economic class boys, more girls from upper socio-economic class were overweight/obese in comparison with middle socio-economic class girls and more girls were obese in comparison to boys from upper socio-economic class.Conclusions: The primary prevention could be the key plan for controlling the current epidemic of obesity and these strategies seem to be more effective in children than in adults

    Modeling four-dimensional metamaterials: A T-matrix approach to describe time-varying metasurfaces

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    Exploring the interaction of light with materials periodically structured in space and time is intellectually rewarding and, simultaneously, a computational challenge. Appropriate computational tools are urgently needed to explore how such upcoming photonic materials can control light on demand. Here, we introduce a semi-analytical approach based on the transition matrix (also known as T-matrix) to analyze the optical response of a spatiotemporal metasurface. The metasurface consists of a periodic arrangement of time-varying scattering particles. In our approach, we depart from an individual scatterer’s T-matrix to construct the effective T-matrix of the metasurface. From that effective T-matrix, all observable properties can reliably be predicted. We verify our semi-analytical approach with full-wave numerical simulations. We demonstrate a speed-up with our approach by a factor of more than 500 compared to a finite-element simulation. Finally, we exemplify our approach by studying the effect of time modulation on a Huygens’ metasurface and discuss some emerging observable features

    Evaluation of Remote Sensing and Meteorological parameters for Yield Prediction of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Crop

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    Abstract In the Agriculture sector, the farmers need a reliable estimation for pre-harvest crop yield prediction to decide their import-export policies. The present work aims to assess the impact of remote sensing-based derived products with Climate data on the accuracy of a prediction model for the sugarcane yield. The regression method was used to develop an empirical model based on VCI, Historical Sugarcane Yield, and Climatic Parameters of 75 districts of six major sugar-producing states of India. The MOD13Q1 product of MODIS on Board Terra Satellite at 16-day intervals was accessed during the growing season of sugarcane crop with 36 meteorological parameters for experimentation. The accuracy of the model was evaluated using R2, Root Mean square Metric (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and mean square error (MSE). The preliminary results concluded that the proposed methodology achieved the highest accuracy with (R2 =0.95, MAE=5.18, MSE=34.5, RMSE=5.87). The conclusion of the study highlighted that the coefficient of determination can be improved significantly by incorporating maximum and minimum temperature parameters with Remote sensing derived vegetation indices for the sugarcane yield

    Follow-up assessment of pulmonary functions in mechanically ventilated children after discharge from pediatric intensive care unit: A developing country perspective

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    Background: There is a paucity of data on the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in pediatric mechanically ventilated patients, especially in a developing country setting. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the pediatric intensive care unit over 15 months. The PFTs were measured using spirometry at discharge, at 3 and 6 months. Results: Of 32 eligible children, 20 (mean age 9 ± 2.62 years) completed the 6-month follow-up. The most common indications for mechanical ventilation were respiratory (45%) and neurological (35%) causes. At the end of 6 months, 65% children had abnormal lung function (restrictive pattern). Patients with longer duration of ventilation, high peak pressures, and high fractional inhaled oxygen had a trend toward more abnormality in the lung function. Conclusions: Pediatric mechanically ventilated patients developed restrictive pulmonary defects after discharge that gradually improved over time. The majority was asymptomatic and reported no lifestyle limitations. There is a need for longer follow-up studies to assess the lung function and clinical condition postdischarge

    DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION OF NEWLY DEVELOPED DISPOSABLE STATIC DIFFUSION CELL FOR DRUG DIFFUSION/PERMEABILITY STUDIES

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    Objectives: The present study describes a disposable static diffusion cell for in vitro diffusion studies to achieve better results as compared to well existing Franz diffusion cell (FDC) in terms of the absence of bubbles, variable receptor compartment, ease of handling, and faster results.Materials and Methods: The cell consists of a cup-shaped donor compartment made of semi permeable that could be either cellophane membrane or, animal skin fitted to a rigid frame, which is supported on a plastic plate that contains a hole for the sample withdrawal. The receptor compartment is a separate unit, and it could be any container up to 500ml volume capacity. The most preferred receptor compartment is glass beaker. In the present study, goatskin was used as semi-permeable membrane and verification of its performance was carried out through diffusion studies using gel formulations of one each of the four-selected biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class drugs. Metronidazole, diclofenac sodium, fluconazole, and sulfadiazine were used as model drugs for BCS Class I, II, III, and IV, respectively.Results: The newly developed diffusion cell (NDDC) was found to provide faster and more reproducible results as compared to FDC. At the time interval of 24 h, the cell was found to exhibit a higher diffusion of metronidazole, diclofenac sodium, fluconazole, and sulfadiazine by 0.65, 0.65, 0.32, and 0.81 folds, respectively. The faster release obtained with NDDC was attributed to a larger surface area of skin as compared to that in FDC.Conclusion: It was concluded that better reproducibility of results could be achieved with NDDC

    Nephrin Regulates Lamellipodia Formation by Assembling a Protein Complex That Includes Ship2, Filamin and Lamellipodin

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    Actin dynamics has emerged at the forefront of podocyte biology. Slit diaphragm junctional adhesion protein Nephrin is necessary for development of the podocyte morphology and transduces phosphorylation-dependent signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. The present study extends our understanding of Nephrin function by showing in cultured podocytes that Nephrin activation induced actin dynamics is necessary for lamellipodia formation. Upon activation Nephrin recruits and regulates a protein complex that includes Ship2 (SH2 domain containing 5â€Č inositol phosphatase), Filamin and Lamellipodin, proteins important in regulation of actin and focal adhesion dynamics, as well as lamellipodia formation. Using the previously described CD16-Nephrin clustering system, Nephrin ligation or activation resulted in phosphorylation of the actin crosslinking protein Filamin in a p21 activated kinase dependent manner. Nephrin activation in cell culture results in formation of lamellipodia, a process that requires specialized actin dynamics at the leading edge of the cell along with focal adhesion turnover. In the CD16-Nephrin clustering model, Nephrin ligation resulted in abnormal morphology of actin tails in human podocytes when Ship2, Filamin or Lamellipodin were individually knocked down. We also observed decreased lamellipodia formation and cell migration in these knock down cells. These data provide evidence that Nephrin not only initiates actin polymerization but also assembles a protein complex that is necessary to regulate the architecture of the generated actin filament network and focal adhesion dynamics

    Calibration of the CMS hadron calorimeters using proton-proton collision data at root s=13 TeV

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    Methods are presented for calibrating the hadron calorimeter system of theCMSetector at the LHC. The hadron calorimeters of the CMS experiment are sampling calorimeters of brass and scintillator, and are in the form of one central detector and two endcaps. These calorimeters cover pseudorapidities vertical bar eta vertical bar ee data. The energy scale of the outer calorimeters has been determined with test beam data and is confirmed through data with high transverse momentum jets. In this paper, we present the details of the calibration methods and accuracy.Peer reviewe

    Suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascade by curcumin alone and in combination with piperine in rat model of olfactory bulbectomy induced depression.

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    OBJECTIVES:Bilateral destruction of the olfactory bulbs is known to cause behavioral changes analogous to symptoms of depression. Curcumin, a traditional Indian spice is currently being investigated in different psychiatric problems including depression. Dietary phytochemicals are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression in rats. METHODS:Rats undergone olfactory bulbs ablations were analyzed after post-surgical rehabilitation period of 2 weeks. Animals were then treated with different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.), piperine (20 mg/kg; p.o.) and their combination daily for another 2 weeks. Imipramine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) served as a standard control. Various behavioral tests like forced swim test (FST), open field behaviour and sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed, followed by estimation of biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological parameters in rat brain. RESULTS:Ablation of olfactory bulbs caused depression-like symptoms as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, hyperactivity in open field arena, and anhedonic like response in SPT along with alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complexes, increased serum corticosterone levels and oxidative damage. These deficits were integrated with increased inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) and apoptotic factor (caspase-3) levels along with a marked reduction in neurogenesis factor (BDNF) in the brain of olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats. Curcumin treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored all these behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations associated with OBX induced depression. Further, co-administration of piperine with curcumin significantly potentiated their neuroprotective effects as compared to their effects alone. CONCLUSIONS:The present study highlights that curcumin along with piperine exhibits neuroprotection against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression possibly by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress induced neuroinflammation and apoptosis
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