10 research outputs found

    Funnel control for boundary control systems

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    We study a nonlinear, non-autonomous feedback controller applied to boundary control systems. Our aim is to track a given reference signal with prescribed performance. Existence and uniqueness of solutions to the resulting closed-loop system is proved by using nonlinear operator theory. We apply our results to both hyperbolic and parabolic equations.Comment: 26 pages, thoroughly revised version. The system class has been generalized considerably. Added general example class of parabolic problem

    Chitosan from Marine Amphipods Inhibits the Wilt Banana Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense Tropical Race 4

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    In this work, we extracted chitosan from marine amphipods associated with aquaculture facilities and tested its use in crop protection. The obtained chitosan was 2.5 ± 0.3% of initial ground amphipod dry weight. The chemical nature of chitosan from amphipod extracts was confirmed via Raman scattering spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This chitosan showed an 85.7–84.3% deacetylation degree. Chitosan from biofouling amphipods at 1 mg·mL−1 virtually arrested conidia germination (ca. sixfold reduction from controls) of the banana wilt pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense Tropical Race 4 (FocTR4). This concentration reduced (ca. twofold) the conidia germination of the biocontrol fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc123). Chitosan from amphipods at low concentrations (0.01 mg·mL−1) still reduced FocTR4 germination but did not affect Pc123. This is the first time that chitosan is obtained from biofouling amphipods. This new chitosan valorizes aquaculture residues and has potential for biomanaging the diseases of food security crops such as bananas.This project was funded by PID2020-119734RB-I00 (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation), EU H2020 MUSA no. 727624, and AIRAM (Biodiversity Foundation, Spanish Ministry for Ecological Transition, and the Demographic Challenge) projects

    Risk factors for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales: an international matched case-control-control study (EURECA)

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    Cases were patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intraabdominal (cIAI), pneumonia or bacteraemia from other sources (BSI-OS) due to CRE; control groups were patients with infection caused by carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacterales (CSE), and by non-infected patients, respectively. Matching criteria included type of infection for CSE group, ward and duration of hospital admission. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. Findings Overall, 235 CRE case patients, 235 CSE controls and 705 non-infected controls were included. The CRE infections were cUTI (133, 56.7%), pneumonia (44, 18.7%), cIAI and BSI-OS (29, 12.3% each). Carbapenemase genes were found in 228 isolates: OXA-48/like, 112 (47.6%), KPC, 84 (35.7%), and metallo-beta-lactamases, 44 (18.7%); 13 produced two. The risk factors for CRE infection in both type of controls were (adjusted OR for CSE controls; 95% CI; p value) previous colonisation/infection by CRE (6.94; 2.74-15.53; <0.001), urinary catheter (1.78; 1.03-3.07; 0.038) and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, as categorical (2.20; 1.25-3.88; 0.006) and time-dependent (1.04 per day; 1.00-1.07; 0.014); chronic renal failure (2.81; 1.40-5.64; 0.004) and admission from home (0.44; 0.23-0.85; 0.014) were significant only for CSE controls. Subgroup analyses provided similar results. Interpretation The main risk factors for CRE infections in hospitals with high incidence included previous coloni-zation, urinary catheter and exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics

    Moisture statistics in free convective boundary layers growing into linearly stratified atmospheres

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    We use dimensional analysis and direct numerical simulations to characterize specific humidity statistics in the equilibrium (quasi-steady) entrainment regime of cloud-free convective boundary layers that grow into linearly stratified free atmospheres. The first three moments and the mean vertical flux are studied for arbitrary combinations of free-atmosphere lapse-rates and surface fluxes of buoyancy and specific humidity. First, we find the combination of these parameters that distinguishes between the entrainment-drying regime and the surface-moistening regime. We also provide a zero-order model describing both regimes. Second, we parametrize the variances in the mixed layer and in the entrainment zone separately, based on convective and entrainment-zone scales, respectively. We show that the large variances in the entrainment zone are not only due to large production rates, but also due to low dissipation rates. Third, we provide the skewness for any regime between the pure drying limit and the pure moistening limit. The variation of the skewness indicates that knowing the sign of the skewness near the surface is often insufficient to distinguish between drying and moistening regimes, in contrast to previous conjectures. In a more general context, this paper further supports the applicability of direct numerical simulations to investigate the atmospheric boundary layer, as inferred from the degree of Reynolds number similarity observed in the results and from the consistency of the derived parametrizations with field measurements.</p