58 research outputs found

    Triplet to Singleton-A Successful Outcome

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    We are presenting a case report of triplet pregnancy in a 25 years old lady, in whom single fetal reduction was done at 10 weeks. At 29 weeks, ultrasonography showed fetal demise of second twin. Conservative management was done, after evaluating the status of second twin. Maternal and fetal monitoring was done with PT INR, Ultrasound Doppler weekly till 33 weeks when an emergency cesarean was done due to preterm labour pains. A healthy baby of 1.8 kg was born along with a macerated IUD of 500 gms. Mother and baby are healthy on follow up till date. Hence conservative management should be followed in single fetus demise in twin pregnancy with proper monitoring

    DIFFERENT ASPECTS INVOLVED IN PROCESS VALIDATION

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    ABSTRACT Validation refers to establishing documented evidence that a process or system, when operated within established parameters, can perform effectively and reproducibly to produce a medicinal product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality attributes. Validation of the individualsteps of the processes is called the process validation. Process validation involves the collection and evaluation of data, from the process design stage throughout production, that establish scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering a quality drug substance. It is internationally recognized that validation is necessary in analyticallaboratories. The use of validated methods is important for an analyticallaboratory to show its qualification and competency.This new approach to process validation encompasses equipmentand utility qualification and is fully science and risk-based. Itprovides the pharmaceutical industry with the opportunity tore-think the whole concept of validation and ensure that theseactivities add real value to our businesses and to patients.It involves prospective validation, retrospective validation and concurrent validation.A life-cycle approach should be applied linking product and process development, validation of the commercial manufacturing process and maintenance of the process in a state of control during routine commercial production. KEYWORDS:Validation, prospective validation, concurrent validation, retrospective  validation, quality by desig

    Drought and heat stress-related proteins: an update about their functional relevance in imparting stress tolerance in agricultural crops

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    Key message We describe here the recent developments about the involvement of diverse stress-related proteins in sensing, signaling, and defending the cells in plants in response to drought or/and heat stress. Abstract In the current era of global climate drift, plant growth and productivity are often limited by various environmental stresses, especially drought and heat. Adaptation to abiotic stress is a multigenic process involving maintenance of homeostasis for proper survival under adverse environment. It has been widely observed that a series of proteins respond to heat and drought conditions at both transcriptional and translational levels. The proteins are involved in various signaling events, act as key transcriptional activators and saviors of plants under extreme environments. A detailed insight about the functional aspects of diverse stress-responsive proteins may assist in unraveling various stress resilience mechanisms in plants. Furthermore, by identifying the metabolic proteins associated with drought and heat tolerance, tolerant varieties can be produced through transgenic/recombinant technologies. A large number of regulatory and functional stress-associated proteins are reported to participate in response to heat and drought stresses, such as protein kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors, and late embryogenesis abundant proteins, dehydrins, osmotins, and heat shock proteins, which may be similar or unique to stress treatments. Few studies have revealed that cellular response to combined drought and heat stresses is distinctive, compared to their individual treatments. In this review, we would mainly focus on the new developments about various stress sensors and receptors, transcription factors, chaperones, and stress-associated proteins involved in drought or/and heat stresses, and their possible role in augmenting stress tolerance in crops

    Genome-wide transcriptome analysis and physiological variation modulates gene regulatory networks acclimating salinity tolerance in chickpea

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    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that is a global threat to crop production, including chickpea. This study focused on understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance using comparative transcriptome analysis of tolerant (ICCV 10, JG 11) and sensitive (DCP 92-3, Pusa 256) chickpea genotypes in control and salt-stressed environments. A total of 530 million reads were generated from root samples of four genotypes using Illumina HiSeq-2500. A total of 21,698 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 11,456 and 10,242 were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in comparative analysis. These DEGs were associated with crucial metabolic pathways, including hormone signaling, photosynthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and cell wall biogenesis. Gene ontology (GO) examination revealed an enrichment of transcripts involved in salinity response. A total of 4257 differentially expressed GO terms were categorized into 64 functional groups; of which, GO terms like, integral component of membrane, organelle, and cellular anatomical entity were highly represented in tolerant genotypes under salt stress. Significant up-regulation of transcripts encoding potassium transporter family HAK/KUP proteins, MIP/aquaporin protein family, NADH dehydrogenase, pectinesterase, and PP2C family proteins occurred under salt stress. The tolerant lines (ICCV 10 and JG 11) engaged highly efficient machinery in response to elevated salt stress, especially for signal transduction, transport and influx of K+ ions, and osmotic homeostasis. The overall study highlights the role of potential candidate genes and their regulatory networks which can be utilized in breeding salt tolerant chickpea cultivars

    A comprehensive analysis of Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene for salinity tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

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    Soil salinity affects various crop cultivation but legumes are the most sensitive to salinity. Osmotic stress is the first stage of salinity stress caused by excess salts in the soil on plants which adversely affects the growth instantly. The Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) genes play a key role in the regulation of abiotic stresses resistance from the high expression of different isoform. Selected genotypes were evaluated to estimate for salt tolerance as well as genetic variability at morphological and molecular level. Allelic variations were identified in some of the selected genotypes for the TPS gene. A comprehensive analysis of the TPS gene from selected genotypes was conducted. Presence of significant genetic variability among the genotypes was found for salinity tolerance. This is the first report of allelic variation of TPS gene from chickpea and results indicates that the SNPs present in these conserved regions may contribute largely to functional distinction. The nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that the TPS gene sequences were found to be conserved among the genotypes. Some selected genotypes were evaluated to estimate for salt tolerance as well as for comparative analysis of physiological, molecular and allelic variability for salt responsive gene Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase through sequence similarity. Allelic variations were identified in some selected genotypes for the TPS gene. It is found that Pusa362, Pusa1103, and IG5856 are the most salt-tolerant lines and the results indicates that the identified genotypes can be used as a reliable donor for the chickpea improvement programs for salinity tolerance

    Development of Superhydrophobic Coatings on Metallic Surfaces for Industrial Applications

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    Recently, several superhydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces have been developed, but they have not achieved great success in developing on commercial scale. Although these coatings have exceptional properties like self cleaning, anti-corrosive, anti-icing, etc., but these coatings cannot be used successfully in industry due to inability of complete mechanical, chemical and thermal stability data. Therefore, the main challenge is to create cheap, excellent adhesively, environmentally safe, durable, regenerative superhydrophobic coatings on various metallic surfaces. In the current work, various superhydrophobic coatings on metallic surfaces (aluminum, steel, copper, and steel mesh) for various industrial applications were synthesized by simple immersion technique.Superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were synthesized using two-step and one-step processes. By using two-step process, two different superhydrophobic coatings were prepared using etchants such as KOH and HCl+HNO3 solutions independently and then by immersion in lauric acid solution for lowering surface energy. One-step process was used to synthesize superhydrophobic coating by immersing aluminium sample in a mixture of KOH etchant and lauric acid solution. Superhydrophobic coatings on steel and steel mesh surfaces were synthesized using two-step process. For the fabrication, first roughness was created by immersing in etchant (HCl+HNO3) and then by dipping the roughened surface in lauric acid low surface energy surface was created. Superhydrophobic coatings on copper surfaces were synthesized using two-step and one-step processes. In this case, after the creation of roughness and lowering the surface energy, the same chemicals were used. For each case, effects of process parameters like etching time and immersion time in lauric acid are studied. The result reveals that surface roughness and water contact angle increase with etching and immersion time. After fabrication, mechanical, thermal, and chemical stability tests were performed to identify the operating range. The SEM studies reveal the presence of a rough micropattern on the treated surfaces and the contact angle measurements confirm the superhydrophobicity. The water droplet dynamics study reveals that the water droplet with low impact velocity bounces from the surface. At critical impact velocity, pinning of water droplet is observed. Splashing of water droplet is observed beyond the critical impact velocity. Furthermore, the coated sample remains in floating condition on the water surface for several weeks, showing excellent water-repellent nature. Coated surface bounces off the high speed water jet stream and then still no change in superhydrophobicity is found. This behaviour confirms the excellent mechanical properties of the coatings. In addition to the above, it is observed that mechanical disturbances due to surface bending and repeated folding and de-folding do not have much effect on the superhydrophobicity. Mechanical durability of coatings was also evaluated by performing adhesive tape peeling and sand paper abrasion tests for the confirmation and quantification of the durability of coatings. In chemical stability test, superhydrophobic nature remains unaffected after several days of immersion in NaCl solution and shows the excellent chemical stability of coating. Thermal stability of coatings was evaluated by annealing samples in temperature range 40 - 250 °C for one-hour period in hot air oven. It is found that superhydrophobicity of most of the coated samples remains unaffected after annealing in temperature range 40 - 140 °C, and this is considered as the excellent thermal stability of coatings. Coatings are found to be fully damaged after 24 hours annealing at 300 °C and superhydrophobicity of surface turns into superhydrophilicity. However, wettability of the surfaces can be restored by simple immersing the samples again in lauric acid solution. The analysis reveals that superhydrophobicity of the coatings is regained. Self-cleaning property of the fabricated superhydrophobic aluminium, steel, and copper surfaces was studied. Coating shows the excellent self-cleaning property. No accumulation of moisture from air on the cooled superhydrophobic aluminium, steel, and copper surfaces is observed and this asserts the excellent anti-fogging property of coatings. By electrochemical tests, it is demonstrated anti-corrosion property of coating with low corrosion current density and high corrosion potential. For the replication of industrial applications in laboratory, petroleum ether-water and benzene-water mixtures which are oil-water mixtures were successfully separated from each other by a simple filtration method using the superhydrophobic steel mesh with the separation efficiency above 99%. Oil-water separation using the coated steel mesh is simple, fast, and repeatable for at least 10 times. The aforesaid durable and regenerable superhydrophobic metallic surfaces have potential industrial applications

    DIFFERENT ASPECTS INVOLVED IN PROCESS VALIDATION

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    Validation refers to establishing documented evidence that a process or system, when operated within established parameters, can perform effectively and reproducibly to produce a medicinal product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality attributes. Validation of the individualsteps of the processes is called the process validation. Process validation involves the collection and evaluation of data, from the process design stage throughout production, that establish scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering a quality drug substance. It is internationally recognized that validation is necessary in analyticallaboratories. The use of validated methods is important for an analyticallaboratory to show its qualification and competency.This new approach to process validation encompasses equipmentand utility qualification and is fully science and risk-based. Itprovides the pharmaceutical industry with the opportunity tore-think the whole concept of validation and ensure that theseactivities add real value to our businesses and to patients.It involves prospective validation, retrospective validation and concurrent validation.A life-cycle approach should be applied linking product and process development, validation of the commercial manufacturing process and maintenance of the process in a state of control during routine commercial production. KEYWORDS:Validation, prospective validation, concurrent validation, retrospective  validation, quality by designÂ

    Fabrication of Mechanically Stable Superhydrophobic Aluminium Surface with Excellent Self-Cleaning and Anti-Fogging Properties

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    The development of a self-cleaning and anti-fogging superhydrophobic coating for aluminium surfaces that is durable in aggressive conditions has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, a superhydrophobic Al surface was synthesized by employing chemical etching technique with a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids, followed by passivation with lauric acid. The surface morphology analysis revealed the presence of rough microstructures on the coated Al surface. Superhydrophobicity with water contact angle of 170 ± 3.9° and sliding angle of 4 ± 0.5° was achieved. The surface bounced off the high-speed water jet, indicating the excellent water-repellent nature of the coating. It also continuously floated on a water surface for four weeks, showing its excellent buoyancy. Additionally, the coating maintained its superhydrophobicity after undergoing 100 cycles of adhesive tape peeling test. Its superhydrophobic nature withstood 90° and 180° bending and repeated folding and de-folding. The coating exhibits an excellent self-cleaning property. In a low temperature condensation test, almost no accumulation of water drops on the surface showed the excellent anti-fogging property of the coating. This approach can be applied to any size and shape of Al surface, and hence has great industrial applications

    Effects of mutations at tyrosine 66 and asparagine 123 in the active site pocket of Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase on uracil excision from synthetic DNA oligomers: evidence for the occurrence of long-range interactions between the enzyme and substrate

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    Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), a highly conserved DNA repair enzyme, excises uracil from DNA. Crystal structures of several UDGs have identified residues important for their exquisite specificity in detection and removal of uracil. Of these, Y66 and N123 in Escherichia coli UDG have been proposed to restrict the entry of non-uracil residues into the active site pocket. In this study, we show that the uracil excision activity of the Y66F mutant was similar to that of the wild-type protein, whereas the activities of the other mutants (Y66C, Y66S, N123D, N123E and N123Q) were compromised ∼1000-fold. The latter class of mutants showed an increased dependence on the substrate chain length and suggested the existence of long-range interactions of the substrate with UDG. Investigation of the phosphate interactions by the ethylation interference assay reaffirmed the key importance of the –1, +1 and +2 phosphates (with respect to the scissile uracil) to the enzyme activity. Interestingly, this assay also revealed an additional interference at the –5 position phosphate, whose presence in the substrate had a positive effect on substrate utilisation by the mutants that do not possess a full complement of interactions in the active site pocket. Such long-range interactions may be crucial even for the wild-type enzyme under in vivo conditions. Further, our results suggest that the role of Y66 and N123 in UDG is not restricted merely to preventing the entry of non-uracil residues. We discuss their additional roles in conferring stability to the transition state enzyme–substrate complex and/or enhancing the leaving group quality of the uracilate anion during catalysis
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