439 research outputs found

    Effect of water stress on leaf nutrient status and frequency of irrigation in various cultivars of kiwifruit

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    The five cultivars of kiwifruit viz., Allison, Hayward, Abbott, Monty and Bruno during the years 2011 and 2012 in the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. Two irrigation treatments i.e. standard irrigation (at 80% field capacity) and deficit irrigation (at 60 % F C) were applied to these cultivars from March to October with three replications in Randomized Block Design (RBD). The leaf nutrient content (%) and frequency of irrigation (irrigation interval in days) were investigated in kiwifruit in response to these irrigation treatments. The leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) contents varied with cultivars under two irrigation regimes. The leaf N content and Ca content (%) was observed highest in cultivar Monty; P content in Allison; K content in Hayward; Mg content (%) in Abbott and Monty under standard irrigation treatment. These nutrient contents reduced significantly at 0.05 % level of significance with deficit irrigation treatment in different cultivars. The % reduction in these nutrients with deficit irrigation treatment was found to be highest in cultivar Hayward and the least in Bruno. The total number of irrigation applied under standard and deficit irrigation were 16 and 10 respectively, during both the years. The response of Bruno cultivar in terms of leaf nutrient content under water deficit condition is much better in comparison to all other cultivars. Bruno is considered to be drought tolerant cultivar and Hayward to be drought sensitive. Thus, the Bruno cultivar should be preferred for cultivation in water scarce regions

    Effect of deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation on soil moisture content and frequency of irrigation in kiwifruit cultivar Allison

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    The effect of deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation in kiwifruit cv. Allison vines was studied during the years 2011 and 2012 in the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, HP, India. Soil moisture content and frequency of irrigation were investigated in kiwifruit in response to deficit irrigation and in situ moisture conservation techniques. Seven treatments viz., irrigation at 80 per cent Field Capacity (T1), 60 per cent Field Capacity (T2) and 40 per cent Field Capacity (T3), 60 per cent Field Capacity (FC) plus grass mulch (T4) or black polythene (T5) and 40 per cent FC plus grass mulch (T6) or black polythene (T7) were applied from March to October with three replications in Randomized Block Design (RBD). During the year 2011, the soil moisture content under kiwifruit vines was highest under the treatment T1 (15.3, 16.9) , followed by T5 (15.2, 16.8) and T4 (14.9, 16.6) at 30 cm and at 60 cm soil depth, respectively. Whereas, during the year 2012, the soil moisture content under kiwifruit vines was highest under the treatment T1 (14.9, 16.4), followed by T5 (15.0, 16.3) and T4 (14.6, 16.1) at 30 cm and at 60 cm soil depth, respectively. However,the least soil moisture content was, however, observed under T3 (11.0, 12.8) at 30 cm and 60 cm soil depth , respectively, during the year 2011, similarly, during the year 2012, the least soil moisture content was also observed under T3 (10.6, 12.7) at 30 cm and 60 cm soil depth, respectively. The frequency of irrigation was highest under T1 (16 irrigations) followed T2 (10 irrigations) while the least was recorded under T6 and T7 (7irrigations). Total numbers of irrigations applied were reduced from 16 (under T1) to 8 (under T5). The use of black plastic mulch may be beneficial as it helped to conserve moistureunder DI regime which is comparable to those in well irrigated vines. It may also reduce the high irrigation requirement of kiwifruit in areas where sufficient water is not available

    An Update on Some Recent Solubility Enhancers as Pharmaceutical Excipients

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    At present the pharmaceutical academia and industries are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. Due to advances in drug delivery technology, currently, excipients are included in novel dosage forms to fulfill specific functions. Various natural polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of its non-toxic and biocompatible in nature. Natural polymers (polysaccharides) have been investigated for drug delivery applications as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer or synthetic polymers have found its application as a support material for cell culture, tissue engineering and gene delivery. Recent trends towards use of natural products or plant based products demand the replacement of synthetic additives with natural ones. These natural materials have many advantages over synthetic ones as they are biodegradable, chemically inert, less expensive, nontoxic and widely available. This review provides an overview of the different modified polymer derivatives and their applications with special consideration being put on biomedical engineering and controlled drug delivery

    Need of premarital care

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    Background: Marriage is considered a remarkable event in an individual’s life. It provides people with a sense of belonging, support, security and responsibility. We put so much of efforts to find a good match for our younger and loved ones but we forget to match the most important wealth of our life “Health”. This study aimed to know the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population through a structured questionnaire.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 110 males and 110 females attending Medicine and Gynae OPD at Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi. Participants were questioned according to the self administered questionnaire and their answers were evaluated.Results: Only 11% of males new of premarital counseling and none of the females were aware of premarital care. Contraception knowledge was also poor among females as 7% females new only I-Pill as the method of contraception. After knowing the importance of premarital counseling and screening 92% males and 52 % females agreed for premarital counseling and screening.Conclusions: Marriage provides people with a sense of belonging, support, security and responsibility. Premarital care nurtures it and fill its “Neev” with the goodness of health. Therefore, it is recommended that premarital care is important before every marriage for the happy and healthy family ahead

    How did Markets and Public Sentiment React During Demonetization? Study of a Significant Event in the Indian Economy

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    The present study aims to determine the impact of shock of demonetization which happened in November 2016 in India. It has been observed in literature that while the market moves due to unforeseen events, market movements are largely affected by news reports on such events. Considering these two threads and the association between them, the study follows mixed method research methodology and assesses the impact of demonetization on stock market movement through time series analysis and text analytics of news items generated during the period. This study examines, through time series analysis, the impact of demonetization as an unexpected event on stock market movement. Time series analysis evaluates the impact on overall stock market movements and on sectoral indices, liquidity shocks in the emerging Indian economy due to demonetization. This study integrates time series analysis with robustness tests and follows text analytics, news analytics and sentiment analytics to gauge public sentiment (influenced by media coverage) during the event. These evaluations validate negative movements in the market and most of the sectors due to the negative sentiment of people about demonetization

    Dissolution Enhancement of Domperidone Fast Disintegrating Tablet Using Modified Locust Bean Gum by Solid Dispersion Technique

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    Enhancement of dissolution characteristics of poorly soluble drug Domperidone by solid dispersion technique using modified locust bean gum (MLBG) and further conversion into tablet dosage form with fast dissolving characteristics is being explored in current study. Solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by solvent evaporation technique. F1, F3, F5 and F7 batches of SD (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 ratio of drug to MLBG) were prepared. Maximum solubility was observed in 1:3 ratio (F3 batch) in comparison to pure drug. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy studies revealed no interaction of drug to polymer MLBG. Transition from crystalline to amorphous state of drug was analyzed by X-RD studies. SEM studies revealed change in surface characteristics of drug in solid dispersions. In vitro release studies revealed maximum dissolution in F3 (93% in 30 min). Further solid dispersion batches F3 was compressed into tablets including other excipients and crosspovidone as superdisintegrant. The in vitro release from tablet batch revealed better dissolution characteristics (95% in 30 min) in comparison to marketed tablet (50% in 60 min). Therefore, MLBG solid dispersion tablets of domperidone can be a convenient dosage form with enhanced dissolution characteristics

    Role of Terlipressin and Albumin for Hepatorenal Syndrome in Liver Transplantation

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/162755/2/lt25834.pdfhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/162755/1/lt25834_am.pd

    End‐stage liver disease candidates at the highest model for end‐stage liver disease scores have higher wait‐list mortality than status‐1A candidates

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    Candidates with fulminant hepatic failure (Status‐1A) receive the highest priority for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States. However, no studies have compared wait‐list mortality risk among end‐stage liver disease (ESLD) candidates with high Model for End‐Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores to those listed as Status‐1A. We aimed to determine if there are MELD scores for ESLD candidates at which their wait‐list mortality risk is higher than that of Status‐1A, and to identify the factors predicting wait‐list mortality among those who are Status‐1A. Data were obtained from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for adult LT candidates (n = 52,459) listed between September 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007. Candidates listed for repeat LT as Status‐1 A were excluded. Starting from the date of wait listing, candidates were followed for 14 days or until the earliest occurrence of death, transplant, or granting of an exception MELD score. ESLD candidates were categorized by MELD score, with a separate category for those with calculated MELD > 40. We compared wait‐list mortality between each MELD category and Status‐1A (reference) using time‐dependent Cox regression. ESLD candidates with MELD > 40 had almost twice the wait‐list mortality risk of Status‐1A candidates, with a covariate‐adjusted hazard ratio of HR = 1.96 ( P = 0.004). There was no difference in wait‐list mortality risk for candidates with MELD 36‐40 and Status‐1A, whereas candidates with MELD 20 ( P = 0.6). Conclusion : Candidates with MELD > 40 have significantly higher wait‐list mortality and similar posttransplant survival as candidates who are Status‐1A, and therefore, should be assigned higher priority than Status‐1A for allocation. Because ESLD candidates with MELD 36‐40 and Status‐1A have similar wait‐list mortality risk and posttransplant survival, these candidates should be assigned similar rather than sequential priority for deceased donor LT. (H epatology 2012)Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/89518/1/24632_ftp.pd