160 research outputs found

    Rapid behavioral transitions produce chaotic mixing by a planktonic microswimmer

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    Despite their vast morphological diversity, many invertebrates have similar larval forms characterized by ciliary bands, innervated arrays of beating cilia that facilitate swimming and feeding. Hydrodynamics suggests that these bands should tightly constrain the behavioral strategies available to the larvae; however, their apparent ubiquity suggests that these bands also confer substantial adaptive advantages. Here, we use hydrodynamic techniques to investigate "blinking," an unusual behavioral phenomenon observed in many invertebrate larvae in which ciliary bands across the body rapidly change beating direction and produce transient rearrangement of the local flow field. Using a general theoretical model combined with quantitative experiments on starfish larvae, we find that the natural rhythm of larval blinking is hydrodynamically optimal for inducing strong mixing of the local fluid environment due to transient streamline crossing, thereby maximizing the larvae's overall feeding rate. Our results are consistent with previous hypotheses that filter feeding organisms may use chaotic mixing dynamics to overcome circulation constraints in viscous environments, and it suggests physical underpinnings for complex neurally-driven behaviors in early-divergent animals.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure

    Ciliary flocking and emergent instabilities enable collective agility in a non-neuromuscular animal

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    Effective organismal behavior responds appropriately to changes in the surrounding environment. Attaining this delicate balance of sensitivity and stability is a hallmark of the animal kingdom. By studying the locomotory behavior of a simple animal (\textit{Trichoplax adhaerens}) without muscles or neurons, here, we demonstrate how monociliated epithelial cells work collectively to give rise to an agile non-neuromuscular organism. Via direct visualization of large ciliary arrays, we report the discovery of sub-second ciliary reorientations under a rotational torque that is mediated by collective tissue mechanics and the adhesion of cilia to the underlying substrate. In a toy model, we show a mapping of this system onto an "active-elastic resonator". This framework explains how perturbations propagate information in this array as linear speed traveling waves in response to mechanical stimulus. Next, we explore the implications of parametric driving in this active-elastic resonator and show that such driving can excite mechanical 'spikes'. These spikes in collective mode amplitudes are consistent with a system driven by parametric amplification and a saturating nonlinearity. We conduct extensive numerical experiments to corroborate these findings within a polarized active-elastic sheet. These results indicate that periodic and stochastic forcing are valuable for increasing the sensitivity of collective ciliary flocking. We support these theoretical predictions via direct experimental observation of linear speed traveling waves which arise from the hybridization of spin and overdamped density waves. We map how these ciliary flocking dynamics result in agile motility via coupling between an amplified resonator and a tuning (Goldstone-like) mode of the system. This sets the stage for how activity and elasticity can self-organize into behavior which benefits the organism as a whole

    Non-bilaterians as Model Systems for Tissue Mechanics

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    In animals, epithelial tissues are barriers against the external environment, providing protection against biological, chemical, and physical damage. Depending on the animal's physiology and behavior, these tissues encounter different types of mechanical forces and need to provide a suitable adaptive response to ensure success. Therefore, understanding tissue mechanics in different contexts is an important research area. Here, we review recent tissue mechanics discoveries in a few early-divergent non-bilaterian animals -- Trichoplax adhaerens, Hydra vulgaris, and Aurelia aurita. We highlight each animal's simple body plan and biology, and unique, rapid tissue remodeling phenomena that play a crucial role in its physiology. We also discuss the emergent large-scale mechanics that arise from small-scale phenomena. Finally, we emphasize the enormous potential of these non-bilaterian animals to be model systems for further investigation in tissue mechanics.Comment: Review paper, Comments/suggestions are welcom

    Energy spectra in turbulent bubbly flows

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    We conduct experiments in a turbulent bubbly flow to study the nature of the transition between the classical ‚ąí-5/3 energy spectrum scaling for a single-phase turbulent flow and the ‚ąí-3 scaling for a swarm of bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid and of bubble-dominated turbulence. The bubblance parameter, which measures the ratio of the bubble-induced kinetic energy to the kinetic energy induced by the turbulent liquid fluctuations before bubble injection, is often used to characterise the bubbly flow. We vary the bubblance parameter from b=‚ąěb = \infty (pseudo-turbulence) to b=0b = 0 (single-phase flow) over 2-3 orders of magnitude (0.01‚ąí50.01 - 5) to study its effect on the turbulent energy spectrum and liquid velocity fluctuations. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the liquid velocity fluctuations show deviations from the Gaussian profile for b>0b > 0, i.e. when bubbles are present in the system. The PDFs are asymmetric with higher probability in the positive tails. The energy spectra are found to follow the ‚ąí-3 scaling at length scales smaller than the size of the bubbles for bubbly flows. This ‚ąí-3 spectrum scaling holds not only in the well-established case of pseudo-turbulence, but surprisingly in all cases where bubbles are present in the system (b>0b > 0). Therefore, it is a generic feature of turbulent bubbly flows, and the bubblance parameter is probably not a suitable parameter to characterise the energy spectrum in bubbly turbulent flows. The physical reason is that the energy input by the bubbles passes over only to higher wave numbers, and the energy production due to the bubbles can be directly balanced by the viscous dissipation in the bubble wakes as suggested by Lance &\& Bataille (1991). In addition, we provide an alternative explanation by balancing the energy production of the bubbles with viscous dissipation in the Fourier space.Comment: J. Fluid Mech. (in press

    The clustering morphology of freely rising deformable bubbles

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    We investigate the clustering morphology of a swarm of freely rising deformable bubbles. A three-dimensional Vorono\"i analysis enables us to quantitatively distinguish between two typical clustering configurations: preferential clustering and a grid-like structure. The bubble data is obtained from direct numerical simulations (DNS) using the front-tracking method. It is found that the bubble deformation, represented by the aspect ratio \chi, plays a significant role in determining which type of clustering is realized: Nearly spherical bubbles with \chi <~ 1.015 form a grid-like structure, while more deformed bubbles show preferential clustering. Remarkably, this criteria for the clustering morphology holds for different diameters of the bubbles, surface tension, and viscosity of the liquid in the studied parameter regime. The mechanism of this clustering behavior is connected to the amount of vorticity generated at the bubble surfaces.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Three-dimensional Lagrangian Voronoi analysis for clustering of particles and bubbles in turbulence

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    Three-dimensional Voronoi analysis is used to quantify the clustering of inertial particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence using data from numerics and experiments. We study the clustering behavior at different density ratios and particle response times (i.e. Stokes numbers St). The Probability Density Functions (PDFs) of the Voronoi cell volumes of light and heavy particles show a different behavior from that of randomly distributed particles -i.e. fluid tracers-implying that clustering is present. The standard deviation of the PDF normalized by that of randomly distributed particles is used to quantify the clustering. Light particles show maximum clustering for St around 1-2. The results are consistent with previous investigations employing other approaches to quantify the clustering. We also present the joint PDFs of enstrophy and Voronoi volumes and their Lagrangian autocorrelations. The small Voronoi volumes of light particles correspond to regions of higher enstrophy than those of heavy particles, indicating that light particles cluster in higher vorticity regions. The Lagrangian temporal autocorrelation function of Voronoi volumes shows that the clustering of light particles lasts much longer than that of heavy or neutrally buoyant particles. Due to inertial effects, the Lagrangian autocorrelation time-scale of clustered light particles is even longer than that of the enstrophy of the flow itself.Comment: J. Fluid Mech. 201

    Lagrangian statistics of light particles in turbulence

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    We study the Lagrangian velocity and acceleration statistics of light particles (micro-bubbles in water) in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Micro-bubbles with a diameter of 340 microns and Stokes number from 0.02 to 0.09 are dispersed in a turbulent water tunnel operated at Taylor-Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 160 to 265. We reconstruct the bubble trajectories by employing three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). It is found that the probability density functions (PDFs) of the micro-bubble acceleration show a highly non-Gaussian behavior with flatness values in the range 23-30. The acceleration flatness values show an increasing trend with Re, consistent with previous experiments (Voth et al., JFM, 2002) and numerics (Ishihara et al., JFM, 2007). These acceleration PDFs show a higher intermittency compared to tracers (Ayyalasomayajula et al., Phys. Fluids, 2008) and heavy particles (Ayyalasomayajula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006) in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the micro-bubble acceleration autocorrelation function decorrelates slower with increasing Re. We also compare our results with experiments in von Karman flows and point-particle direct numerical simulations with periodic boundary conditions.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, revised manuscrip

    Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, Nearby Galaxies, and the Distant Universe

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    We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median z‚ąľ0.03z\sim 0.03). The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) is mapping the galaxy, quasar, and neutral gas distributions between z‚ąľ0.6z\sim 0.6 and 3.5 to constrain cosmology using baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions, and the shape of the power spectrum. Within eBOSS, we are conducting two major subprograms: the SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS), investigating X-ray AGNs and galaxies in X-ray clusters, and the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), obtaining spectra of variable sources. All programs use the 2.5 m Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory; observations there began in Summer 2014. APOGEE-2 also operates a second near-infrared spectrograph at the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, with observations beginning in early 2017. Observations at both facilities are scheduled to continue through 2020. In keeping with previous SDSS policy, SDSS-IV provides regularly scheduled public data releases; the first one, Data Release 13, was made available in 2016 July

    Early Life Child Micronutrient Status, Maternal Reasoning, and a Nurturing Household Environment have Persistent Influences on Child Cognitive Development at Age 5 years : Results from MAL-ED

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    Funding Information: The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project (MAL-ED) is carried out as a collaborative project supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Foundation for the NIH, and the National Institutes of Health/Fogarty International Center. This work was also supported by the Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health (D43-TW009359 to ETR). Author disclosures: BJJM, SAR, LEC, LLP, JCS, BK, RR, RS, ES, LB, ZR, AM, RS, BN, SH, MR, RO, ETR, and LEM-K, no conflicts of interest. Supplemental Tables 1‚Äď5 and Supplemental Figures 1‚Äď3 are available from the ‚ÄúSupplementary data‚ÄĚ link in the online posting of the article and from the same link in the online table of contents at https://academic.oup.com/jn/. Address correspondence to LEM-K (e-mail: [email protected]). Abbreviations used: HOME, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory; MAL-ED, The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project; TfR, transferrin receptor; WPPSI, Wechsler Preschool Primary Scales of Intelligence.Peer reviewe
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