6,265 research outputs found

    Component test program for variable-cycle engines

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    Variable cycle engine (VCE) concepts for a supersonic cruise aircraft were studied. These VCE concepts incorporate unique critical components and flow path arrangements that provide good performance at both supersonic and subsonic cruise and appear to be economically and environmentally viable. Certain technologies were identified as critical to the successful development of these engine concepts and require considerable development and testing. The feasibility and readiness of the most critical VCE technologies, was assessed, a VCE component test program was initiated. The variable stream control engine (VSCE) component test program, tested and evaluated an efficient low emission duct burner and a quiet coannular ejector nozzle at the rear of a rematched F100 engine

    The 2s atomic level in muonic 208-Pb

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    Relative intensities and energy measurements of 2s level in muonic Pb-20

    Global Opportunities to Increase Agricultural Independence Through Phosphorus Recycling

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    Food production hinges largely upon access to phosphorus (P) fertilizer. Most fertilizer P used in the global agricultural system comes from mining of nonrenewable phosphate rock deposits located within few countries. However, P contained in livestock manure or urban wastes represents a recyclable source of P. To inform development of P recycling technologies and policies, we examined subnational, national, and global spatial patterns for two intersections of land use affording high P recycling potential: (a) manureā€rich cultivated areas and (b) populous cultivated areas. In turn, we examined overlap between P recycling potential and nationā€level P fertilizer import dependency. Populous cultivated areas were less abundant globally than manureā€rich cultivated areas, reflecting greater segregation between crops and people compared to crops and livestock, especially in the Americas. Based on a global hexagonal grid (290ā€km2 grid cell area), disproportionately large shares of subnational ā€œhot spotsā€ for P recycling potential occurred in India, China, Southeast Asia, Europe, and parts of Africa. Outside of China, most of the remaining manureā€rich or populous cultivated areas occurred within nations that had relatively high imports of P fertilizer (net P import:consumption ratios ā‰„0.4) or substantial increases in fertilizer demand between the 2000s (2002ā€“2006) and 2010s (2010ā€“2014). Manureā€rich cultivated grid cells (those above the 75th percentiles for both manure and cropland extent) represented 12% of the global grid after excluding cropless cells. Annually, the global sum of animal manure P was at least 5 times that contained in human excreta, and among cultivated cells the ratio was frequently higher (median = 8.9). The abundance of potential P recycling hot spots within nations that have depended on fertilizer imports or experienced rising fertilizer demand could prove useful for developing local P sources and maintaining agricultural independence

    Progress on reducing acrylamide levels in potato crisps in Europe, 2002 to 2019

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    European Snacks Association (ESA) data on acrylamide in potato crisps from 2002 to 2019 (99704 observations) were analysed. Acrylamide levels have plateaued since 2011, although the lowest mean so far was attained in 2018 at 353 Ā± 2.7 ng g-1: a 54% reduction since 2002. The 85th, 90th and 95th quantiles did show evidence of continued downward progress, the 90th quantile being lower than the 750 ng g-1 European Benchmark Level from 2017 to 2019. A smaller dataset from the European Food Safety Authority (2124 observations) for 2011-2018, was also analysed. The yearly means were higher than those of the ESA data, but showed a fall in average acrylamide from 715 Ā± 40.5 ng g-1 in 2015 to 505 Ā±28.5 ng g-1 in 2018, as well as steep falls in the 85th, 90th and 95th quantiles. Nevertheless, even the 85th quantile remained above the 750 ng g-1 Benchmark Level. The ESA data showed a reduction in the proportion of samples with acrylamide exceeding 750 ng g-1, from over 40 % in 2002 to 7.75 % in 2019. Seasonality was evident, with highest acrylamide levels from November to May. Crisp type had little effect except that thicker types had a higher proportion of samples containing >750 ng g-1 acrylamide. Analysis of the region of origin in Europe of the final product revealed improvements in the east and north. Geographical factors combined with seasonality continued to be problematic but was also an aspect in which progress was most evident. The findings show that improvements have been made in reducing the number of samples with very high levels of acrylamide, but do not suggest that mean acrylamide levels could be reduced substantially below where they have been since 2011, or that levels could be kept consistently below the current Benchmark Level

    First Report of Columbia Root Knot Nematode (\u3ci\u3eMeloidogyne chitwoodi\u3c/i\u3e) in Potato in Texas

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    Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden et al. (1) was identified from potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., collected from Dallam County, Texas in October 2000. Seed potatoes are the most likely source for this introduction. This nematode is currently found infecting potatoes grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Some countries prohibit import of both seed and table stock potatoes originating in states known to harbor M. chitwoodi. Lesions on the potatoes had discrete brown coloration with white central spots in the outer 1 cm of the tuber flesh. Female nematode densities averaged 3 per square centimeter of a potato section beneath the lesions. Nematodes were morphologically identified as M. chitwoodi based on the perineal pattern of mature females and the tail shape of juveniles per Golden et al. (1)

    Distribution of the misfolded isoform of the prion protein in peripheral tissues and spinal cord of Rocky Mountain elk (\u3ci\u3eCervus elaphus nelsoni\u3c/i\u3e) with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease

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    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids associated with the presence of a misfolded prion protein (PrPCWD). Progression of PrPCWD distribution has been described using immunohistochemistry and histologic changes in a single section of brain stem at the level of the obex resulting in scores from 0 (early) to 10 (terminal) in elk with naturally occurring CWD. Here we describe the spread and distribution of PrPCWD in peripheral tissues and spinal cord in 16 wild and 17 farmed Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with naturally occurring CWD and correlate these findings with obex scores. Spinal cord and approximately 110 peripheral tissues were collected, processed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunolabeled with the anti-prion protein monoclonal antibody F99/97.6.1. The medial retropharyngeal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were the first tissues to accumulate PrPCWD, followed by other lymphoid tissues, myenteric plexus, spinal cord, and finally tissues outside of the lymphatic and neural systems. However, the only significant histological lesion observed was mild spongiform encephalopathy in the dorsal column of the lower spinal cord in elk with an obex score of ā‰„9. Initial exposure to CWD prions may be through the respiratory system and spread appears to occur primarily via the autonomic nervous system. Therefore, we suggest using obex scores as a proxy for stage of disease progression and verifying with key peripheral tissues
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