41 research outputs found

    Teaching Students How to Think, not What to Think: Pedagogy and Political Psychology

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    Academia is often critiqued as an “ivory tower” where research, thinking, and teaching are isolated from the complexity and everyday experience of so many people. As instructors of political and other psychology courses, we strive to break down these barriers and engage with the dynamic and nuanced nature of phenomena as situated in lived social and political contexts. In this report, we unpack and detail how we strive to achieve this goal by expanding on Plous’ articulation of action teaching (2012). We first define our pedagogical focus on active engagement, critical thinking, and staying on the move between multiple perspectives. We then provide specific examples of how we enact our philosophy in activities and assessment. We end by articulating how this approach to teaching in social and political psychology can be understood as furthering not only our students’ intellectual growth as psychologists, but also their development as democratic citizens. In doing so, we argue that action teaching not only involves course activities directly engaging with social issues, but also provides students with a scaffold to actually do so in a way that is attentive to the complexity, pluralism, and dynamism of social and political issues

    Natural Mathematics, the Fibonacci Numbers and Aesthetics in Art

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    The Mathematics of beauty and beauty in mathematics are important ingredients in learning in the liberal arts. The Fibonacci numbers play an important and useful role in this. This paper seeks to present and illustrate a grounding of visual aesthetics in natural mathematical principles, centered upon the Fibonacci numbers. The specific natural mathematical principles investigated are the Fibonacci numbers, the Fibonacci Spiral, and the Cosmic Bud

    Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 in the faeces of cattle with false positive reactions in serological tests for brucellosis in Ireland

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    Intestinal infection by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 (YeO9) in cattle has been linked to false positive serological reactivity (FPSR) in diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Although eradicated in Ireland, brucellosis monitoring still identifies seropositive animals, usually one or two (termed singletons) per herd, which are classed as FPSR. To investigate a link between FPSR and YeO9, faeces and blood were collected from singleton FPSR cattle, and from companion animals, in eight selected herds with more than one FPSR animal, for YeO9 culture and Brucella serology. YeO9 was isolated from 76/474 (16%) FPSR singletons in 309 herds, but not from any of 621 animals in 122 control non-FPSR herds. In the FPSR herds 52/187 (27.8%) animals were culture positive, and 17% of the isolates were from seronegative animals. Seropositive animals were more likely to have a rising antibody titre when culture positive

    Cancer-related fatigue and self-care agency: A multicentre survey of patients receiving chemotherapy

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    Aims and objectives: To measure cancer-related fatigue (CRF), self-care agency (SCA) and fatigue self-care strategies, and to explore the relationship between CRF and SCA. Background: Cancer-related fatigue has been consistently rated as the most elusive, common and severe of symptoms that patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience. Despite its frequency and severity, CRF is poorly managed. A renewed focus on supporting self-care among patients with cancer has been found to reduce symptom burden, empower patients and improve patient satisfaction. Understanding the link between self-care agency (i.e. capability and willingness to self-care) and CRF levels will help practitioners to better support individuals on the cancer journey. Design: A descriptive, correlational survey design was employed. Methods: Patients (n = 362) undergoing chemotherapy with a primary diagnosis of breast, colorectal, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cancers were recruited from four oncology centres in one city in the South of Ireland. Participants completed the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised, Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale and a researcher-developed Fatigue Self-Care Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between CRF and self-care agency using a dichotomous dependent variable score of four as the cut-off between those deemed to be fatigued (≥4) and those not fatigued (<4). As recommended by the EQUATOR Network, the STROBE checklist of items for cross-sectional studies is used to report the study. Results: The incidence of CRF was high with 75% of participants scoring clinically relevant CRF. Higher SCA (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93–0.99, p = .011) was associated with decreased odds of developing CRF. Having non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.29–7.07, p = .011) was associated with increased odds of developing CRF. Conclusions: Patient's undergoing chemotherapy experience significant fatigue. Higher capability for self-care is associated with lower fatigue. The promotion of SCA and self-care strategies can impact on CRF. Relevance to clinical practice: Understanding the link between self-care abilities and fatigue can lead to more individualised and tailored approaches to CRF

    Molecular Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa : Epidemiological Investigation of Mastitis Outbreaks in Irish Dairy Herds

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    http://aem.asm.org/Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen in both humans and animals. This bacterium, most often associated with respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, was found to be the causative agent in bovine mastitis outbreaks among 11 Irish dairy herds. Epidemiological findings suggested that the infection was spread to all herds by teat wipes that had been contaminated with this organism. Two molecular-typing strategies were used in an attempt to determine the genomic relationship(s), if any, of the P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the various herds and to verify whether the same strain was responsible for each outbreak. Thirty-six isolates from the mastitis outbreaks were tested and compared to fourteen clinical isolates from Cork University Hospital. With one exception, all outbreak-linked strains produced identical patterns when ribotyped with ClaI and PvuII enzymes. Eight of the clinical isolates gave the same ClaI ribotype pattern as the mastitis-causing strains. However, PvuII proved more discriminatory, with only the outbreak isolates producing identical patterns. Similar results were obtained with RW3A-primed DNA amplification fingerprinting, with all outbreak isolates except one displaying the same fingerprint array. The clinical strains produced several fingerprint patterns, all of which were different from those of the mastitis-causing isolates. Fine-resolution DNA fingerprinting with a fluorescence-labelled RW3A primer also identified a number of low-molecular-weight polymorphisms that would have remained undetected by conventional methods. These data support the view that the same P. aeruginosa strain was responsible for the mastitis outbreaks in all 11 herds

    Pornography and Masculinity: How Mainstream Pornography Reinforces a Narrow and Destructive Conceptualization of Masculinity

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    In mainstream pornography, boys and men are indoctrinated with a profoundly problematic template for sexual intimacy. Both masculine gender role strain and problematic pornography use predict interpersonal and mental health difficulties. In this paper, the relationship between gender role strain and problematic pornography use was examined through the lens of social learning theory, which argues that individuals imitate and replicate others’ behavior in novel situations. Given that mainstream pornography depicts acts of sexual aggression, men who are exposed to pornography before their first partnered sexual experience may recall and imitate the aggressive acts when they later engage in sexual intimacy. Due to culturally supported, narrow definitions of masculinity, boys and men are drawn toward pornography in a misguided attempt to strengthen their sense of masculine identity. In pornography, men may learn that sexual aggression is not only acceptable, but is a normative or even desired component of sex