4 research outputs found

    Socialising tomorrow's cities: Envisioning a future city in Rapti/Deukhuri Valley, Nepal.

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    Taking six cases of socio-economically disaggregated communities of the Rapti/Deukhuri Valley (southwestern Nepal), the book analyses communities' aspirations, hopes, future land use plans, risk management strategies, and policy priorities for actualising an equitable and resilient capital city in the Valley. While all communities aspired for resilient infrastructures, their priorities varied. The Tharus community prioritised preserving fertile land and Tharu culture, the migrants proposed strategic settlement expansion, integrating agricultural lands and green spaces, and Ethnic communities aspired for a future city with agricultural zones and flood control measures. The Madhesi, Muslim, and Dalit communities advocated for equitable access to housing and basic services. The informal settler/squatter community seeks land and housing security, education, healthcare, and employment opportunities. Finally, the Planners (i.e. government-employed urban planners and local elected representatives) envisioned an eco-friendly city with agriculture, employment, land categorisation, and cultural tourism. Incorporating the social and spatial elements in the envisioned city, the disaggregated groups prioritised policies for (1) a context-sensitive disaster risk reduction management, (2) managing informal communities, (3) ensuring agriculture and livelihood security, (4) conserving local ecology (e.g. forests, water), and (5) fostering traditional and technical skills for employment and economic prosperity in this provincial capital. The following key policy actions to socialise tomorrow's capital city in the Valley require the local and provincial authorities to (i) integrate resilient infrastructures and community perspectives in multi-hazard risk management, (ii) ensure equitable opportunities for employment, training, and inclusive decision-making accommodating a growing mixed society, and (iii) promote small-scale and traditional businesses for sustainable future livelihoods. Adhering to the principles of inclusivity and promoting equity, ecology, and good governance is vital for building a discrimination-free, risk-resilient, and well-governed tomorrow's capital city in the Valley

    Policies for tomorrow’s risk-resilient and equitable cities

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    Key policy messages 1. Haphazard urbanisation and construction activities and rapid migration create and trigger hazards such as inundation, landslides, fires, and encroachment in traditional settlements and farming land. 2. (Local) municipal governments urgently need to extrapolate emerging and future risks of hazards considering existing risks triggered by haphazard urbanisation. 3. Since disasters caused by vulnerabilities and hazards affect human society, culture, identity and livelihood practices, the engagement of social scientists to foresee the social aspects of risks from the inception of urban planning is quintessential. 4. Urban planning should not be portrayed solely as an infrastructure development project (e.g. high-rise buildings, wide roads, etc) but also conservation of local culture and environment, and inclusion of traditional knowledge and practices. 5. A deliberative and iterative engagement with disaggregated communities (e.g. caste/ethnicity, migrants, marginalised, informal settlers, women) is crucial to envisioning inclusive and resilient future/tomorrow’s cities. 6. All kinds of municipal development endeavours should be informed, embraced and institutionalised accounting for emerging and potential risks reduction and management aspects urgently

    Survival, morbidity, growth and developmental delay for babies born preterm in low and middle income countries - a systematic review of outcomes measured.

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    BackgroundPremature birth is the leading cause of neonatal death and second leading in children under 5. Information on outcomes of preterm babies surviving the early neonatal period is sparse although it is considered a major determinant of immediate and long-term morbidity.MethodsSystematic review of studies reporting outcomes for preterm babies in low and middle income settings was conducted using electronic databases, citation tracking, expert recommendations and "grey literature". Reviewers screened titles, abstracts and articles. Data was extracted using inclusion and exclusion criteria, study site and facilities, assessment methods and outcomes of mortality, morbidity, growth and development. The Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group criteria (CHERG) were used to assess quality.FindingsOf 197 eligible publications, few (10.7%) were high quality (CHERG). The majority (83.3%) report on the outcome of a sample of preterm babies at time of birth or admission. Only 16.0% studies report population-based data using standardised mortality definitions. In 50.5% of studies, gestational age assessment method was unclear. Only 15.8% followed-up infants for 2 years or more. Growth was reported using standardised definitions but recommended morbidity definitions were rarely used. The criteria for assessment of neurodevelopmental outcomes was variable with few standardised tools - Bayley II was used in approximately 33% of studies, few studies undertook sensory assessments.ConclusionsTo determine the relative contribution of preterm birth to the burden of disease in children and to inform the planning of healthcare interventions to address this burden, a renewed understanding of the assessment and documentation of outcomes for babies born preterm is needed. More studies assessing outcomes for preterm babies who survive the immediate newborn period are needed. More consistent use of data is vital with clear and aligned definitions of health outcomes in newborn (preterm or term) and intervention packages aimed to save lives and improve health

    Survival, Morbidity, Growth and Developmental Delay for Babies Born Preterm in Low and Middle Income Countries – A Systematic Review of Outcomes Measured

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