12,810 research outputs found

    Circuit prevents overcharging of secondary cell batteries

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    Circuit prevents battery cell overcharging by detecting and reducing the charging voltage to the open-circuit voltage of the battery when this current falls to a predetermined value. The voltage control depends on the fact that the charging current falls significantly when the battery nears its fully charged state

    Method and apparatus for battery charge control Patent

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    Battery charging system with cell to cell voltage balanc

    Radial honeycomb core

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    Core alleviates many limitations of conventional nacelle construction methods. Radical core, made of metals or nonmetals, is fabricated either by joining nodes and then expanding, or by performing each layer and then joining nodes. Core may also be produced from ribbons or strips with joined nodes or ribbons oriented in longitudinal planes

    Simultaneous optical polarimetry and X-ray data of the near synchronous polar RX J2115-5840

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    We present simultaneous optical polarimetry and X-ray data of the near synchronous polar RX J2115-5840. We model the polarisation data using the Stokes imaging technique of Potter et al. We find that the data are best modelled using a relatively high binary inclination and a small angle between the magnetic and spin axes. We find that for all spin-orbit beat phases, a significant proportion of the accretion flow is directed onto the lower hemisphere of the white dwarf, producing negative circular polarisation. Only for a small fraction of the beat cycle is a proportion of the flow directed onto the upper hemisphere. However, the accretion flow never occurs near the upper magnetic pole, whatever the orientation of the magnetic poles. This indicates the presence of a non-dipole field with the field strength at the upper pole significantly higher. We find that the brightest parts of the hard X-ray emitting region and the cyclotron region are closely coincident.Comment: 9 pages, accepted for publication in MNRAS 2 March 200

    Coherent Optimal Control of Multiphoton Molecular Excitation

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    We give a framework for molecular multiphoton excitation process induced by an optimally designed electric field. The molecule is initially prepared in a coherent superposition state of two of its eigenfunctions. The relative phase of the two superposed eigenfunctions has been shown to control the optimally designed electric field which triggers the multiphoton excitation in the molecule. This brings forth flexibility in desiging the optimal field in the laboratory by suitably tuning the molecular phase and hence by choosing the most favorable interfering routes that the system follows to reach the target. We follow the quantum fluid dynamical formulation for desiging the electric field with application to HBr molecule.Comment: 5 figure

    Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

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    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis has not yet been investigated. Here, by means of choline acetyl transferase and NR2B or NR2C double staining, we demonstrate that mice express both the NR2C and NR2B subunits in nucleus basalis cholinergic cells.We generated NR2C-2B mutant mice in which an insertion of NR2B cDNA into the gene locus of the NR2C gene replaced NR2C by NR2B expression throughout the brain. This NR2C-2B mutant was used to examine whether a subunit exchange in cholinergic neurons would affect acetylcholine (ACh) content in several brain structures. We found increased ACh levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala in the brains of NR2C-2B mutant mice. Brain ACh has been implicated in neuroplasticity, novelty-induced arousal and encoding of novel stimuli. We therefore assessed behavioral habituation to novel environments and objects as well as object recognition in NR2C-2B subunit exchange mice. The behavioral analysis did not indicate any gross behavioral alteration in the mutant mice compared with the wildtype mice. Our results show that the NR2C by NR2B subunit exchange in mice affects ACh content in two target areas of the nucleus basalis.

    Few-nucleon systems with state-of-the-art chiral nucleon-nucleon forces

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    We apply improved nucleon-nucleon potentials up to fifth order in chiral effective field theory, along with a new analysis of the theoretical truncation errors, to study nucleon-deuteron (Nd) scattering and selected low-energy observables in 3H, 4He, and 6Li. Calculations beyond second order differ from experiment well outside the range of quantified uncertainties, providing truly unambiguous evidence for missing three-nucleon forces within the employed framework. The sizes of the required three-nucleon force contributions agree well with expectations based on Weinberg's power counting. We identify the energy range in elastic Nd scattering best suited to study three-nucleon force effects and estimate the achievable accuracy of theoretical predictions for various observables.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Drill Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: 5.5-Million-Years of Petrogenesis in a Mid-crustal Sill Complex

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    Basalts erupted in the Snake River Plain of central Idaho and sampled in the Kimama drill core link eruptive processes to the construction of mafic intrusions over 5.5 Ma. Cyclic variations in basalt composition reveal temporal chemical heterogeneity related to fractional crystallization and the assimilation of previously-intruded mafic sills. A range of compositional types are identified within 1,912 m of continuous drill core: Snake River olivine tholeiite (SROT), low K SROT, high Fe-Ti, and evolved and high K-Fe lavas similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon National Monument. Detailed lithologic and geophysical logs document 432 flow units comprising 183 distinct lava flows and 78 flow groups. Each lava flow represents a single eruptive episode, while flow groups document chemically and temporally related flows that formed over extended periods of time. Temporal chemical variation demonstrates the importance of source heterogeneity and magma processing in basalt petrogenesis. Low-K SROT and high Fe-Ti basalts are genetically related to SROT as, respectively, hydrothermally-altered and fractionated daughters. Cyclic variations in the chemical composition of Kimama flow groups are apparent as 21 upward fractionation cycles, six recharge cycles, eight recharge-fractionation cycles, and five fractionation-recharge cycles. We propose that most Kimama basalt flows represent typical fractionation and recharge patterns, consistent with the repeated influx of primitive SROT parental magmas and extensive fractional crystallization coupled with varying degrees of assimilation of gabbroic to ferrodioritic sills at shallow to intermediate depths over short durations. Trace element models show that parental SROT basalts were generated by 5–10% partial melting of enriched mantle at shallow depths above the garnet-spinel lherzolite transition. The distinctive evolved and high K-Fe lavas are rare. Found at four depths, 319, 1045, 1,078, and 1,189 m, evolved and high K-Fe flows are compositionally unrelated to SROT magmas and represent highly fractionated basalt, probably accompanied by crustal assimilation. These evolved lavas may be sourced from the Craters of the Moon/Great Rift system to the northeast. The Kimama drill core is the longest record of geochemical variation in the central Snake River Plain and reinforces the concept of magma processing in a layered complex
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