71 research outputs found

    The cyclic theory of Hopf algebroids

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    We give a systematic description of the cyclic cohomology theory of Hopf algebroids in terms of its associated category of modules. Then we introduce a dual cyclic homology theory by applying cyclic duality to the underlying cocyclic object. We derive general structure theorems for these theories in the special cases of commutative and cocommutative Hopf algebroids. Finally, we compute the cyclic theory in examples associated to Lie-Rinehart algebras and \'etale groupoids.Comment: 44 pages; to appear in Journal of Noncommutative Geometr

    A Distributed Electrical Model for Interdigitated back Contact Silicon Solar Cells

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    AbstractIn this paper we introduce a quasi 3-D electrical model for a high efficiency interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell. This distributed electrical network is based on two-diodes circuit elementary units. It allows accounting for the resistive losses due to the transport through the emitter, the back surface field (BSF) and the fingers and busbars metallization. Moreover, it can model the electrical shading losses attributed to the BSF busbar. We calibrated the electrical components of the model according to experimental measurements on real devices. The validity of the model is demonstrated by the good agreement between simulation and experimental results for dark and illuminated IV measurements with and without masked busbars. The model can now easily be applied to simulate and optimize different metal grid layouts

    Observation of dynamic V-TH of p-GaN Gate HEMTs by fast sweeping characterization

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    In this work, fast sweeping characterization with an extremely short relaxation time was used to probe the V-TH instability of p-GaN gate HEMTs. As the I-D-V-G sweeping time deceases from 5 ms to 5 mu s, the V-TH dramatically degenerates from 3.13 V to 1.76 V, meanwhile the hysteresis deteriorates from 22.6mV to 1.37 V. Positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) measurement by fast sweeping shows the V-TH features a very fast shifting process but a slower recovering process. D-mode HEMTs counterpart without Mg contamination demonstrates a negligible V-TH shift and hysteresis, proving the V-TH instability is probably due to the ionization of acceptor-like traps in the p-GaN depletion region. Finally, the V-TH instability is verified by a GaN circuit under switching stress. The V-TH instability under different sweeping speed uncovers the fact that the high V-TH by conventionally slow DC measurements is probably artificial. The DC V-TH should be high enough to avoid HEMT faulty turn-on

    New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.

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    Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes

    Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height

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    Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with ~700 common associated variants identified so far through genome - wide association studies . Here , we report 83 height - associated coding variants with lower minor allele frequenc ies ( range of 0.1 - 4.8% ) and effects of up to 2 16 cm /allele ( e.g. in IHH , STC2 , AR and CRISPLD2 ) , >10 times the average effect of common variants . In functional follow - up studies, rare height - increasing alleles of STC2 (+1 - 2 cm/allele) compromise d proteolytic inhibition of PAPP - A and increased cleavage of IGFBP - 4 in vitro , resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin - like growth factors . The se 83 height - associated variants overlap genes mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates ( e.g. ADAMTS3, IL11RA, NOX4 ) and pathways ( e.g . proteoglycan/ glycosaminoglycan synthesis ) involved in growth . Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low - frequency variants of moderate to large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes , and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways

    New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk

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    Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes

    A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

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    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations

    Trading off between threshold voltage and subthreshold slope in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with a p-GaN gate

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    The measured values of the threshold voltage of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with a p-GaN gate are generally more positive than what is expected from a classical HEMT. The transfer characteristics exhibit subthreshold slopes which are higher compared to the standard 60 mV per decade at room temperature. The higher threshold voltage values and subthreshold slopes are related to the specific structure of the p-GaN gate, consisting of two back-to-back diodes. The dominating diode-either the metal to p-GaN Schottky diode or the p-GaN/AlGaN barrier/GaN channel diode-dictates how much gate current flows, determines the subthreshold behavior, and, thus also the threshold voltage. The trade-off between the threshold voltage and the subthreshold slope is discussed revealing the intricate dynamic relation between those two device metrics and the gate leakage current
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