168 research outputs found

    Quantitative isoperimetric inequalities for log-convex probability measures on the line

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    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the isoperimetric inequality for symmetric log-convex probability measures on the line. Using geometric arguments we first re-prove that extremal sets in the isoperimetric inequality are intervals or complement of intervals (a result due to Bobkov and Houdr\'e). Then we give a quantitative form of the isoperimetric inequality, leading to a somehow anomalous behavior. Indeed, it could be that a set is very close to be optimal, in the sense that the isoperimetric inequality is almost an equality, but at the same time is very far (in the sense of the symmetric difference between sets) to any extremal sets! From the results on sets we derive quantitative functional inequalities of weak Cheeger type

    Different detection capabilities by mycological media for Candida isolates from mono- or dual-species cultures

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    The aim of this study was to compare the Candida bromcresol green (BCG) medium with the chromogenic (CHROM) Brilliance Candida agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) media in regard to their capability of detecting Candida isolates from mono- or dual-species cultures. We prepared Candida isolates' suspensions to obtain mono-species (n = 18) or dual-species (n = 153) culture plates per each medium, and three readers independently observed 513 plates at 24-h, 48-h and 72-h incubation time. We scored reading results as correct, over or under detection compared to the expected species number(s). BCG showed significantly higher correct-detection and lower under-detection rates for all Candida species when observed by at least one reader. At 24-h reading, 12 mono-species cultures had correct (or over) detections in all media, whereas 106, 60 and 78 dual-species cultures had correct (or over) detections in BCG, CHROM or SDA, respectively. BCG provides the basis for an accurate laboratory diagnosis of Candida infections

    Risk Factors and Outcomes of Candidemia Caused by Biofilm-Forming Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Very few data exist on risk factors for developing biofilm-forming Candida bloodstream infection (CBSI) or on variables associated with the outcome of patients treated for this infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 207 patients with CBSI, from whom 84 biofilm-forming and 123 non biofilm-forming Candida isolates were recovered. A case-case-control study to identify risk factors and a cohort study to analyze outcomes were conducted. In addition, two sub-groups of case patients were analyzed after matching for age, sex, APACHE III score, and receipt of adequate antifungal therapy. Independent predictors of biofilm-forming CBSI were presence of central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 6.44; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.21-12.92) or urinary catheter (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.18-4.91), use of total parenteral nutrition (OR, 5.21; 95% CI, 2.59-10.48), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 4.47; 95% CI, 2.03-9.83). Hospital mortality, post-CBSI hospital length of stay (LOS) (calculated only among survivors), and costs of antifungal therapy were significantly greater among patients infected by biofilm-forming isolates than those infected by non-biofilm-forming isolates. Among biofilm-forming CBSI patients receiving adequate antifungal therapy, those treated with highly active anti-biofilm (HAAB) agents (e.g., caspofungin) had significantly shorter post-CBSI hospital LOS than those treated with non-HAAB antifungal agents (e.g., fluconazole); this difference was confirmed when this analysis was conducted only among survivors. After matching, all the outcomes were still favorable for patients with non-biofilm-forming CBSI. Furthermore, the biofilm-forming CBSI was significantly associated with a matched excess risk for hospital death of 1.77 compared to non-biofilm-forming CBSI. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that biofilm growth by Candida has an adverse impact on clinical and economic outcomes of CBSI. Of note, better outcomes were seen for those CBSI patients who received HAAB antifungal therapy
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