236 research outputs found

    New Sub-Phenotyping of Subjects at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: What Are the Potential Clinical Implications?

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    Prediabetes is defined as a condition of abnormal glucose metabolism, characterised by plasma glucose above normal range but not as high as required for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). It represents a heterogeneous entity of intermediate glucose metabolism, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and borderline glycated haemoglobin. Prediabetes is being increasingly recognised as an important metabolic state not only predisposing to a higher probability of future progression to DM, but also to an increased risk of different micro- and macrovascular complications. The recently proposed sub-phenotyping of individuals at increased risk of type 2 DM, which distinguishes six different clusters, offers the opportunity for the improvement in screening, prevention, and treatment algorithms. Such progress should also enable more efficient and cost-effective strategies aimed at decreasing the disease burden associated with prediabetes

    Use of Novel Antidiabetic Agents in Patients with Type\ua02 Diabetes and COVID-19: A Critical Review

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The latter is a pandemic that has the potential of developing into a severe illness manifesting as systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ involvement and shock. In addition, advanced age and male sex and certain underlying health conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), predispose to a higher risk of greater COVID-19 severity and mortality. This calls for an urgent identification of antidiabetic agents associated with more favourable COVID-19 outcomes among patients with T2DM, as well as recognition of their potential underlying mechanisms. It is crucial that individuals with T2DM be kept under very stringent glycaemic control in order to avoid developing various cardiovascular, renal and metabolic complications associated with more severe forms of COVID-19 that lead to increased mortality. The use of novel antidiabetic agents dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i), sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in subjects with T2DM may have beneficial effects on COVID-19 outcomes. However, relevant studies either show inconsistent results (DPP4i) or are still too few (SGLT2i and GLP-1RAs). Further research is therefore needed to assess the impact of these agents on COVID-19 outcomes

    Probing lepton flavour violation via neutrinoless τ⟶3μ decays with the ATLAS detector

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    This article presents the sensitivity of theATLAS experiment to the lepton-flavour-violating decays of τ → 3μ. A method utilising the production of τ leptons via W → τν decays is used. This method is applied to the sample of 20.3 fb−1 of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2012. No event is observed passing the selection criteria,and the observed (expected) upper limit on the τ lepton branching fraction into three muons,Br(τ → 3μ),is 3.76 × 10−7 (3.94 × 10−7) at 90 % confidence level

    Measurement of D*±, D± and DS± meson production cross sections in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The production of D*(+/-), D-+/- and D-S(+/-) charmed mesons has been measured with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at,/7s = 7 TeV at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 280 nb(-)1(.) The charmed mesons have been reconstructed in the range of transverse momentum 3.5 < p(T)(D) < 100 GeV and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta(D)vertical bar < 2.1. The differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity were measured for D*(+/-) and D-+/- production. The next-to-leading-order QCD predictions are consistent with the data in the visible kinematic region within the large theoretical uncertainties. Using the visible D cross sections and an extrapolation to the full kinematic phase space, the strangeness -suppression factor in charm fragmentation, the fraction of charged non -strange D mesons produced in a vector state, and the total cross section of charm production at root s = 7 TeV were derived

    Search for new resonances decaying to a W or Z boson and a Higgs boson in the ℓ+ℓ−bb¯, ℓνbb¯, and νν¯bb¯ channels with pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search is presented for new resonances decaying to a W or Z boson and a Higgs boson in the ℓ+ℓ−bb¯, ℓνbb¯, and νν¯bb¯ channels in pp collisions at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. The search is conducted by looking for a localized excess in the WH/ZH invariant or transverse mass distribution. No significant excess is observed, and the results are interpreted in terms of constraints on a simplified model based on a phenomenological Lagrangian of heavy vector triplets

    Search for direct production of charginos and neutralinos in events with three leptons and missing transverse momentum in √s = 7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for the direct production of charginos and neutralinos in final states with three electrons or muons and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis is based on 4.7 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data delivered by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded with the ATLAS detector. Observations are consistent with Standard Model expectations in three signal regions that are either depleted or enriched in Z-boson decays. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set in R-parity conserving phenomenological minimal supersymmetric models and in simplified models, significantly extending previous results

    Jet size dependence of single jet suppression in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s(NN)) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC