8,469 research outputs found

    Daily plots of current vectors obtained during JASIN 1978

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    Characterizing lab instructors' self-reported learning goals to inform development of an experimental modeling skills assessment

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    The ability to develop, use, and refine models of experimental systems is a nationally recognized learning outcome for undergraduate physics lab courses. However, no assessments of students' model-based reasoning exist for upper-division labs. This study is the first step toward development of modeling assessments for optics and electronics labs. In order to identify test objectives that are likely relevant across many institutional contexts, we interviewed 35 lab instructors about the ways they incorporate modeling in their course learning goals and activities. The study design was informed by the Modeling Framework for Experimental Physics. This framework conceptualizes modeling as consisting of multiple subtasks: making measurements, constructing system models, comparing data to predictions, proposing causes for discrepancies, and enacting revisions to models or apparatus. We found that each modeling subtask was identified by multiple instructors as an important learning outcome for their course. Based on these results, we argue that test objectives should include probing students' competence with most modeling subtasks, and test items should be designed to elicit students' justifications for choosing particular modeling pathways. In addition to discussing these and other implications for assessment, we also identify future areas of research related to the role of modeling in optics and electronics labs.Comment: 24 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables; submitted to Phys. Rev. PE

    Delivering organisational adaptation through legislative mechanisms: Evidence from the Adaptation Reporting Power (Climate Change Act 2008)

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    There is increasing recognition that organisations, particularly in key infrastructure sectors, are potentially vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events, and require organisational responses to ensure they are resilient and adaptive. However, detailed evidence of how adaptation is facilitated, implemented and reported, particularly through legislative mechanisms is lacking. The United Kingdom Climate Change Act (2008), introduced the Adaptation Reporting Power, enabling the Government to direct so-called reporting authorities to report their climate change risks and adaptation plans. We describe the authors' unique role and experience supporting the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) during the Adaptation Reporting Power's first round. An evaluation framework, used to review the adaptation reports, is presented alongside evidence on how the process provides new insights into adaptation activities and triggered organisational change in 78% of reporting authorities, including the embedding of climate risk and adaptation issues. The role of legislative mechanisms and risk-based approaches in driving and delivering adaptation is discussed alongside future research needs, including the development of organisational maturity models to determine resilient and well adapting organisations. The Adaptation Reporting Power process provides a basis for similar initiatives in other countries, although a clear engagement strategy to ensure buy-in to the process and research on its long-term legacy, including the potential merits of voluntary approaches, is required

    Technology education challenges and solutions in Latin America

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    The world has become dependent on information, technology, and telecommunications, better known as Information Technology and Telecommunications (IT&T), a term that encompasses the fields of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Computer Science. Increasingly, IT&T is an effective indicator of the difference between developed and developing nations. The competitiveness of a nation is directly related to its incorporation of IT&T which requires a substantial restructuring of the forms and procedures in attempting to generate a base for development of science and technology. To achieve this, it is important to revise the education of human technical and scientific resources. This paper summarizes the experience of the Ibero-American Science and Technology Education (ISTEC) consortium in IT education in Latin America

    Is subdiffusional transport slower than normal?

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    We consider anomalous non-Markovian transport of Brownian particles in viscoelastic fluid-like media with very large but finite macroscopic viscosity under the influence of a constant force field F. The viscoelastic properties of the medium are characterized by a power-law viscoelastic memory kernel which ultra slow decays in time on the time scale \tau of strong viscoelastic correlations. The subdiffusive transport regime emerges transiently for t<\tau. However, the transport becomes asymptotically normal for t>>\tau. It is shown that even though transiently the mean displacement and the variance both scale sublinearly, i.e. anomalously slow, in time, ~ F t^\alpha, ~ t^\alpha, 0<\alpha<1, the mean displacement at each instant of time is nevertheless always larger than one obtained for normal transport in a purely viscous medium with the same macroscopic viscosity obtained in the Markovian approximation. This can have profound implications for the subdiffusive transport in biological cells as the notion of "ultra-slowness" can be misleading in the context of anomalous diffusion-limited transport and reaction processes occurring on nano- and mesoscales

    Rivaroxaban for Preventing Atherothrombotic Events in People with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Elevated Cardiac Biomarkers: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

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    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban for the prevention of adverse outcomes in patients after the acute management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from a randomised, double-blind, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of rivaroxaban (either 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily) in patients with recent ACS [unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)]. In addition, all patients received antiplatelet therapy [aspirin alone or aspirin and a thienopyridine either as clopidogrel (approximately 99 %) or ticlopidine (approximately 1 %) according to national or local guidelines]. The higher dose of rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) did not form part of the marketing authorisation. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the licensed patients who had ACS with elevated cardiac biomarkers (that is, patients with STEMI and NSTEMI) without prior stroke or transient ischaemic stroke showed that compared with standard care, the addition of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) to existing antiplatelet therapy reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, but increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage. However, there were a number of limitations in the evidence base that warrant caution in its interpretation. In particular, the evidence may be confounded because of the post hoc subgroup analysis, modified intention-to-treat analyses, high dropout rates and missing vital status data. Results from the company's economic evaluation showed that the deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for rivaroxaban in combination with aspirin plus clopidogrel or with aspirin alone compared with aspirin plus clopidogrel or aspirin alone was £6203 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. In contrast, the ERG's preferred base case estimate was £5622 per QALY gained. The ICER did not rise above £10,000 per QALY gained in any of the sensitivity analyses undertaken by the ERG, although the inflexibility of the company's economic model precluded the ERG from formally undertaking all desired exploratory analyses. As such, only a crude exploration of the impact of additional bleeding events could be undertaken. The NICE Appraisal Committee concluded that the ICERs presented were all within the range that could be considered cost effective and that the results of the ERG's exploratory sensitivity and scenario analyses suggested that the ICER was unlikely to increase to the extent that it would become unacceptable. The Appraisal Committee therefore concluded that rivaroxaban in combination with aspirin plus clopidogrel, or with aspirin alone, was a cost-effective use of National Health Service (NHS) resources for preventing atherothrombotic events in people with ACS and elevated cardiac biomarkers

    Molecular Model of the Contractile Ring

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    We present a model for the actin contractile ring of adherent animal cells. The model suggests that the actin concentration within the ring and consequently the power that the ring exerts both increase during contraction. We demonstrate the crucial role of actin polymerization and depolymerization throughout cytokinesis, and the dominance of viscous dissipation in the dynamics. The physical origin of two phases in cytokinesis dynamics ("biphasic cytokinesis") follows from a limitation on the actin density. The model is consistent with a wide range of measurements of the midzone of dividing animal cells.Comment: PACS numbers: 87.16.Ka, 87.16.Ac http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16197254 http://www.weizmann.ac.il/complex/tlusty/papers/PhysRevLett2005.pd

    SeaSoar data processing and calibration

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