95 research outputs found

    Open Innovation In Online Brand Communities

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    The explosive growth of social media and online communities offers companies new unique opportunities to utilize information and knowledge capital by involving users in the company’s innovation activities. Companies started to realize the huge potential of online brand communities as a source of R&D innovations, and the ability to utilize and manage customer knowledge effectively can create competitive advantage for companies. The objective of this research is to identify factors which explain community members’ participation in open innovation activities in online brand communities. It is important from the research and business viewpoint to identify the factors which motivate users to participate in open innovation and enable new value creation for the company’s services and products. Structural equation modeling results indicate that both task involvement and utility explain significantly information and knowledge sharing and willingness to participate in open innovation activities. In addition, information and knowledge sharing has a strong significant impact on participation in open innovation. Implications for research and practice are suggested

    Participating in open innovation of services in social media

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    Services are becoming more information and knowledge intensive. The ability to utilize and manage customer information and knowledge effectively can create competitive advantage for companies. On the other hand, the explosive growth of social media users has created a revolutionary new trend which offers companies new unique opportunities to utilize the information and knowledge capital of social media. Companies started to realize the huge potential of social media as a source of R&D service innovations and as a long-term customer relationships generator. The objective of this research in progress paper is to focus on the factors, which explain brand community members\u27 participation in open innovation of services in social media environments. It is important from both the research and business viewpoint to identify the factors, which motivate users to participate in open innovation activities of brand communities and in generating value for the company. According to preliminary results, the suggested constructs explain preceding factors for participation in open innovation of services

    Continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c in the evaluation of glucose metabolism in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus

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    Aims: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ten asymptomatic children with multiple (>= 2) islet autoantibodies (cases) and 10 age and sex-matched autoantibody-negative controls from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study were invited to 7-day CGM with Dexcom G4 Platinum Sensor. HbA1c and two daily SMBG values (morning and evening) were analyzed. Five-point OGTTs were performed and carbohydrate intake was assessed by food records. The matched pairs were compared with the paired sample t-test. Results: The cases showed higher mean values and higher variation in glucose levels during CGM compared to the controls. The time spent >= 7.8 mmol/l was 5.8% in the cases compared to 0.4% in the controls (p = 0.040). Postprandial CGM values were similar except after the dinner (6.6 mmol/l in cases vs. 6.1 mmol/l in controls; p = 0.023). When analyzing the SMBG values higher mean level, higher evening levels, as well as higher variation were observed in the cases when compared to the controls. HbA1c was significantly higher in the cases [5.7% (39 mmol/mol) vs. 5.3% (34 mmol/mol); p = 0.045]. No differences were observed in glucose or C-peptide levels during OGTT. Daily carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in the cases (254.2 g vs. 217.7 g; p = 0.034). Conclusions: Glucose levels measured by CGM and SMBG are useful indicators of dysglycemia during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Increased evening glucose values seem to be common in children with preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    S100B proteins in febrile seizures

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    AbstractS100B protein concentrations correlate with the severity and outcome of brain damage after brain injuries, and have been shown to be markers of blood–brain barrier damage. In children elevated S100B values are seen as a marker of damage to astrocytes even after mild head injuries. S100B proteins may also give an indication of an ongoing pathological process in the brain with respect to febrile seizures (FS) and the likelihood of their recurrence. To evaluate this, we measured S100B protein concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 103 children after their first FS. 33 children with acute infection without FS served as controls for the serum concentrations. In the FS patients the mean S100B concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid samples was 0.21μg/L and that in the serum samples 0.12μg/L. The mean serum concentration in the controls was 0.11μg/L (difference 0.01μg/L, 95% confidence interval −0.02 to 0.04μg/L, P=0.46). There was a correlation between age and serum S100B concentration (r=−0.28, P=0.008) in children under four years, but S100B concentrations did not predict the clinical severity of the FS nor their recurrence. There was no correlation between time of arrival at the hospital after FS and S100B concentration in serum (r=−0.130, P=0.28) or in cerebrospinal fluid samples (r=−0.091, P=0.52). Our findings indicate that FS does not cause significant blood–brain barrier openings, and increase the evidence that these seizures are relatively harmless for the developing brain

    Reduced dose folinic acid rescue after rapid high-dose methotrexate clearance is not associated with increased toxicity in a pediatric cohort

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s).Purpose: Low doses of folinic acid (FA) rescue after high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) have been associated with increased toxicity, whereas high doses may be related to a decreased antileukemic effect. The optimal dosage and duration of FA rescue remain controversial. This study was designed to investigate, whether a shorter duration of FA rescue in the setting of rapid HD-MTX clearance is associated with increased toxicity. Methods: We reviewed the files of 44 children receiving a total of 350 HD-MTX courses during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia according to the NOPHO ALL-2000 protocol. Following a 5 g/m2 HD-MTX infusion, pharmacokinetically guided FA rescue commenced at hour 42. As per local guidelines, the patients received only one or two 15 mg/m2 doses of FA in the case of rapid MTX clearance (serum MTX ≤ 0.2 μmol/L at hour 42 or hour 48, respectively). Data on MTX clearance, FA dosing, inpatient time, and toxicities were collected. Results: Rapid MTX clearance was observed in 181 courses (51.7%). There was no difference in the steady-state MTX concentration, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neutropenic fever, or neurotoxicity between courses followed by rapid MTX clearance and those without. One or two doses of FA after rapid MTX clearance resulted in a 7.8-h shorter inpatient time than if a minimum of three doses of FA would have been given. Conclusion: A pharmacokinetically guided FA rescue of one or two 15 mg/m2 doses of FA following HD-MTX courses with rapid MTX clearance results in a shorter hospitalization without an increase in toxic effects.Peer reviewe

    Extended family history of type 1 diabetes inHLA-predisposed children with and without islet autoantibodies

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    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the extended family history of type 1 diabetes in children at genetic risk and define the impact of a positive family history on the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Methods The subjects were participants in The Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study and carried increased HLA-conferred risk for type 1 diabetes. The case children (N = 343) were positive for at least one islet autoantibody, and the control children (N = 343) matched by age, gender and class II HLA genotype were negative for islet autoantibodies at the time of data collection. Extended family history of type 1 diabetes was obtained by using a structured questionnaire. Results Among children who were autoantibody positive and progressed to type 1 diabetes 62.2% (28/45) had at least one relative with type 1 diabetes. Interestingly, 57.8% of these children (26/45) had such a relative outside the nuclear family compared to 30.7% of children with no autoantibodies (P= .001), 35.2% of those with only classical islet cell antibodies (P= .006), and 35.2% of non-progressors with biochemical autoantibodies (P= 0.011). A positive history of type 1 diabetes in the paternal extended family was more common in children with multiple biochemical autoantibodies compared to those with only one biochemical autoantibody (P= .010). No association between the specificity of the first appearing autoantibody and family history of the disease was found. Conclusions Type 1 diabetes in relatives outside the nuclear family is a significant risk factor for islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical disease in HLA susceptible children.Peer reviewe

    Early glucose metabolism in children at risk for type 1 diabetes based on islet autoantibodies compared to low-risk control groups

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    BackgroundAnatomic variation or early differences in glucose metabolism have been linked to the development of type 1 diabetes. We aimed to describe early glucose metabolism based on HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and random plasma glucose years before the presentation of type 1 diabetes in five risk groups based on autoantibody combinations. For the first time, we were able to include for comparison children with very low risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. MethodsThe Finnish Diabetes Prediction and Prevention birth cohort study screened newborn infants for HLA susceptibility to type 1 diabetes since 1994. Those carrying a risk genotype were prospectively followed up with islet autoantibody testing. Glucose parameters were obtained starting from the time of seroconversion. By 31 August 2014, 1162 children had developed at least one islet autoantibody and were included in the current study. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed in 335 children (progressors). In the non-progressor groups, 207 developed multiple (>= 2) biochemical islet autoantibodies, 229 a single biochemical autoantibody, 370 ICA only, and 64 transient autoantibodies. Children were divided into five risk groups. Glucose metabolism was evaluated. ResultsWe observed lower HbA1c values in early follow-up 4.5 to 6.0 years before diagnosis in the progressors when compared to the same time in children with a single biochemical autoantibody or low-risk (ICA only and transient) participants, who did not progress to clinical type 1 diabetes. However, no such differences were observed in OGTTs or random plasma glucose. The variation was minimal in glucose values in the low-risk groups. ConclusionWe report the possibility of early alteration in glucose metabolism in future progressors. This could suggest early defects in multiple glucose-regulating hormones.Peer reviewe

    Severe hospital-acquired hyponatremia in acutely ill children receiving moderately hypotonic fluids

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    Background Hypotonic fluids have been associated with hospital-acquired hyponatremia. The incidence of life-threatening severe hyponatremia associated with hypotonic fluids has not been evaluated. Methods This was a population-based cohort study of 46,518 acutely ill children 15 years of age or under who visited the pediatric emergency department (ED) at Oulu University Hospital, Finland, between 2007 and 2017. We retrieved all electrolyte measurements from the comprehensive electronic laboratory system and reviewed medical records for all patients with severe hyponatremia. Results The overall occurrence of severe hyponatremia (serum sodium < 125 mmol/L) was found in 27 out of 46,518 acutely ill children (0.06%, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.08%). After admission, severe hyponatremia developed in seven of 6,984 children receiving moderately hypotonic fluid therapy (0.1%, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.2%), usually within 8 h of admission. All children who developed severe hyponatremia during hospitalization were severely ill. Conclusion In this register-based cohort study of children presenting to the ED, severe hyponatremia developed in one of 998 acutely ill children receiving moderately hypotonic fluid therapy.Peer reviewe

    Efficacy of the implementation of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study II decision rule to clinical practice for paediatric head injury patients

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    Aim To investigate the usefulness of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) II head trauma decision rule in clinical practice for paediatric patients in a tertiary university hospital serving as the only paediatric hospital in the area. Methods We compared how doctors evaluated and examined patients with head injury during two time periods, before and after the introduction of NEXUS II decision rule. Multiple implementation strategies were used as follows: education, tutoring and written instructions for the use of NEXUS II. Results Two hundred and forty-four head injury patients visited the hospital before and 385 after the introduction of the NEXUS II decision rule. The number of hospital admissions (56%) and the mean duration of hospitalisation (2.5 days) remained the same during the two periods. In the NEXUS II evaluated group, there was a decrease of 40% in the number of hospital admissions. NEXUS II was applied in only 62 (16%) cases. The number of head imaging procedures remained the same. No patients with a clinically significant head injury were missed with the NEXUS II evaluation. Conclusion NEXUS II was ineffective as our implementation failed. When used, NEXUS II reduced expenses in our study population by decreasing the number of hospital admissions.Peer reviewe
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