45 research outputs found

    The mass-metallicity relation of tidal dwarf galaxies

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    Dwarf galaxies generally follow a mass-metallicity (MZ) relation, where more massive objects retain a larger fraction of heavy elements. Young tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs), born in the tidal tails produced by interacting gas-rich galaxies, have been thought to not follow the MZ relation, because they inherit the metallicity of the more massive parent galaxies. We present chemical evolution models to investigate if TDGs that formed at very high redshifts, where the metallicity of their parent galaxy was very low, can produce the observed MZ relation. Assuming that galaxy interactions were more frequent in the denser high-redshift universe, TDGs could constitute an important contribution to the dwarf galaxy population. The survey of chemical evolution models of TDGs presented here captures for the first time an initial mass function (IMF) of stars that is dependent on both the star formation rate and the gas metallicity via the integrated galactic IMF (IGIMF) theory. As TDGs form in the tidal debris of interacting galaxies, the pre-enrichment of the gas, an underlying pre-existing stellar population, infall, and mass dependent outflows are considered. The models of young TDGs that are created in strongly pre-enriched tidal arms with a pre-existing stellar population can explain the measured abundance ratios of observed TDGs. The same chemical evolution models for TDGs, that form out of gas with initially very low metallicity, naturally build up the observed MZ relation. The modelled chemical composition of ancient TDGs is therefore consistent with the observed MZ relation of satellite galaxies.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, MNRAS accepte

    Tests of subgrid models for star formation using simulations of isolated disk galaxies

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    We use smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of isolated Milky Way-mass disk galaxies that include cold, interstellar gas to test subgrid prescriptions for star formation (SF). Our fiducial model combines a Schmidt law with a gravitational instability criterion, but we also test density thresholds and temperature ceilings. While SF histories are insensitive to the prescription for SF, the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relations between SF rate and gas surface density can discriminate between models. We show that our fiducial model, with an SF efficiency per free-fall time of 1 per cent, agrees with spatially-resolved and azimuthally-averaged observed KS relations for neutral, atomic and molecular gas. Density thresholds do not perform as well. While temperature ceilings selecting cold, molecular gas can match the data for galaxies with solar metallicity, they are unsuitable for very low-metallicity gas and hence for cosmological simulations. We argue that SF criteria should be applied at the resolution limit rather than at a fixed physical scale, which means that we should aim for numerical convergence of observables rather than of the properties of gas labelled as star-forming. Our fiducial model yields good convergence when the mass resolution is varied by nearly 4 orders of magnitude, with the exception of the spatially-resolved molecular KS relation at low surface densities. For the gravitational instability criterion, we quantify the impact on the KS relations of gravitational softening, the SF efficiency, and the strength of supernova feedback, as well as of observable parameters such as the inclusion of ionized gas, the averaging scale, and the metallicity.Comment: Submitted to MNRAS, 23 pages, 20 figure

    A thermal-kinetic subgrid model for supernova feedback in simulations of galaxy formation

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    We present a subgrid model for supernova feedback designed for simulations of galaxy formation. The model uses thermal and kinetic channels of energy injection, which are built upon the stochastic kinetic and thermal models for stellar feedback used in the OWLS and EAGLE simulations, respectively. In the thermal channel, the energy is distributed statistically isotropically and injected stochastically in large amounts per event, which minimizes spurious radiative energy losses. In the kinetic channel, we inject the energy in small portions by kicking gas particles in pairs in opposite directions. The implementation of kinetic feedback is designed to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum, and is statistically isotropic. To test and validate the model, we run simulations of isolated Milky Way-mass and dwarf galaxies, in which the gas is allowed to cool down to 10 K. Using the thermal and kinetic channels together, we obtain smooth star formation histories and powerful galactic winds with realistic mass loading factors. Furthermore, the model produces spatially resolved star formation rates and velocity dispersions that are in agreement with observations. We vary the numerical resolution by several orders of magnitude and find excellent convergence of the global star formation rates and the mass loading of galactic winds. We show that large thermal-energy injections generate a hot phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) and modulate the star formation by ejecting gas from the disc, while the low-energy kicks increase the turbulent velocity dispersion in the neutral ISM, which in turn helps suppress star formation.Comment: 22 pages, 17 figures (including appendix); submitted to MNRA

    TangoSIDM: tantalizing models of self-interacting dark matter

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    Large scale structure and cosmologyGalaxie

    Swift: A modern highly-parallel gravity and smoothed particle hydrodynamics solver for astrophysical and cosmological applications

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    Numerical simulations have become one of the key tools used by theorists in all the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The development of modern tools that target the largest existing computing systems and exploit state-of-the-art numerical methods and algorithms is thus crucial. In this paper, we introduce the fully open-source highly-parallel, versatile, and modular coupled hydrodynamics, gravity, cosmology, and galaxy-formation code Swift. The software package exploits hybrid task-based parallelism, asynchronous communications, and domain-decomposition algorithms based on balancing the workload, rather than the data, to efficiently exploit modern high-performance computing cluster architectures. Gravity is solved for using a fast-multipole-method, optionally coupled to a particle mesh solver in Fourier space to handle periodic volumes. For gas evolution, multiple modern flavours of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics are implemented. Swift also evolves neutrinos using a state-of-the-art particle-based method. Two complementary networks of sub-grid models for galaxy formation as well as extensions to simulate planetary physics are also released as part of the code. An extensive set of output options, including snapshots, light-cones, power spectra, and a coupling to structure finders are also included. We describe the overall code architecture, summarize the consistency and accuracy tests that were performed, and demonstrate the excellent weak-scaling performance of the code using a representative cosmological hydrodynamical problem with \approx300300 billion particles. The code is released to the community alongside extensive documentation for both users and developers, a large selection of example test problems, and a suite of tools to aid in the analysis of large simulations run with Swift.Comment: 39 pages, 18 figures, submitted to MNRAS. Code, documentation, and examples available at www.swiftsim.co

    Swift: A modern highly-parallel gravity and smoothed particle hydrodynamics solver for astrophysical and cosmological applications

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    Numerical simulations have become one of the key tools used by theorists in all the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The development of modern tools that target the largest existing computing systems and exploit state-of-the-art numerical methods and algorithms is thus crucial. In this paper, we introduce the fully open-source highly-parallel, versatile, and modular coupled hydrodynamics, gravity, cosmology, and galaxy-formation code Swift. The software package exploits hybrid shared- and distributed-memory task-based parallelism, asynchronous communications, and domain-decomposition algorithms based on balancing the workload, rather than the data, to efficiently exploit modern high-performance computing cluster architectures. Gravity is solved for using a fast-multipole-method, optionally coupled to a particle mesh solver in Fourier space to handle periodic volumes. For gas evolution, multiple modern flavours of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics are implemented. Swiftalso evolves neutrinos using a state-of-the-art particle-based method. Two complementary networks of sub-grid models for galaxy formation as well as extensions to simulate planetary physics are also released as part of the code. An extensive set of output options, including snapshots, light-cones, power spectra, and a coupling to structure finders are also included. We describe the overall code architecture, summarise the consistency and accuracy tests that were performed, and demonstrate the excellent weak-scaling performance of the code using a representative cosmological hydrodynamical problem with ≈300 billion particles. The code is released to the community alongside extensive documentation for both users and developers, a large selection of example test problems, and a suite of tools to aid in the analysis of large simulations run with Swift
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