389 research outputs found

    On computations of the integrated space shuttle flowfield using overset grids

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    Numerical simulations using the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and chimera (overset) grid approach were carried out for flows around the integrated space shuttle vehicle over a range of Mach numbers. Body-conforming grids were used for all the component grids. Testcases include a three-component overset grid - the external tank (ET), the solid rocket booster (SRB) and the orbiter (ORB), and a five-component overset grid - the ET, SRB, ORB, forward and aft attach hardware, configurations. The results were compared with the wind tunnel and flight data. In addition, a Poisson solution procedure (a special case of the vorticity-velocity formulation) using primitive variables was developed to solve three-dimensional, irrotational, inviscid flows for single as well as overset grids. The solutions were validated by comparisons with other analytical or numerical solution, and/or experimental results for various geometries. The Poisson solution was also used as an initial guess for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure to improve the efficiency of the numerical flow simulations. It was found that this approach resulted in roughly a 30 percent CPU time savings as compared with the procedure solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations from a uniform free stream flowfield

    On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers

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    The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed

    Intra- and inter-individual genetic differences in gene expression

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    Genetic variation is known to influence the amount of mRNA produced by a gene. Given that the molecular machines control mRNA levels of multiple genes, we expect genetic variation in the components of these machines would influence multiple genes in a similar fashion. In this study we show that this assumption is correct by using correlation of mRNA levels measured independently in the brain, kidney or liver of multiple, genetically typed, mice strains to detect shared genetic influences. These correlating groups of genes (CGG) have collective properties that account for 40-90% of the variability of their constituent genes and in some cases, but not all, contain genes encoding functionally related proteins. Critically, we show that the genetic influences are essentially tissue specific and consequently the same genetic variations in the one animal may up-regulate a CGG in one tissue but down-regulate the same CGG in a second tissue. We further show similarly paradoxical behaviour of CGGs within the same tissues of different individuals. The implication of this study is that this class of genetic variation can result in complex inter- and intra-individual and tissue differences and that this will create substantial challenges to the investigation of phenotypic outcomes, particularly in humans where multiple tissues are not readily available.

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    Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model

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    Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM) of ecosystem structure and function that is both global and applies in all terrestrial and marine environments. Functional forms and parameter values were derived from the theoretical and empirical literature where possible. Simulations of the fate of all organisms with body masses between 10 µg and 150,000 kg (a range of 14 orders of magnitude) across the globe led to emergent properties at individual (e.g., growth rate), community (e.g., biomass turnover rates), ecosystem (e.g., trophic pyramids), and macroecological scales (e.g., global patterns of trophic structure) that are in general agreement with current data and theory. These properties emerged from our encoding of the biology of, and interactions among, individual organisms without any direct constraints on the properties themselves. Our results indicate that ecologists have gathered sufficient information to begin to build realistic, global, and mechanistic models of ecosystems, capable of predicting a diverse range of ecosystem properties and their response to human pressures

    A framework for analysing learning health systems: Are we removing the most impactful barriers?

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    Objective: Learning Health Systems (LHS) are one of the major computing advances in healthcare. However, no prior research has systematically analysed barriers and facilitators for LHS. This paper presents an investigation into the barriers, benefits and facilitating factors for LHS in order to create a basis for their successful implementation and adoption. Method: First, the ITPOSMO-BBF framework was developed based on the established ITPOSMO (Information, Technology, Processes, Objectives, Staffing, Management and Other factors) framework, extending it for analysing barriers, benefits and facilitators. Second, the new framework was applied to LHS. Results: We found that LHS shares similar barriers and facilitators with Electronic Health Records (EHR); in particular, most facilitator effort in implementing EHR and LHS goes towards barriers categorised as human factors, even though they were seen to carry fewer benefits. Barriers whose resolution would bring significant benefits in safety, quality and health outcomes remain. Discussion: LHS envisage constant generation of new clinical knowledge and practice based on the central role of collections of EHR. Once LHS are constructed and operational, they trigger new data streams into the EHR. So LHS and EHR have a symbiotic relationship. The implementation and adoption of EHRs has proved and continues to prove challenging and there are many lessons for LHS arising from these challenges. Conclusion: Successful adoption of LHS should take account of the framework proposed in this paper, especially with respect to its focus on removing barriers that have the most impact

    A critical appraisal of appendage disparity and homology in fishes

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    Fishes are both extremely diverse and morphologically disparate. Part of this disparity can be observed in the numerous possible fin configurations that may differ in terms of the number of fins as well as fin shapes, sizes and relative positions on the body. Here, we thoroughly review the major patterns of disparity in fin configurations for each major group of fishes and discuss how median and paired fin homologies have been interpreted over time. When taking into account the entire span of fish diversity, including both extant and fossil taxa, the disparity in fin morphologies greatly complicates inferring homologies for individual fins. Given the phylogenetic scope of this review, structural and topological criteria appear to be the most useful indicators of fin identity. We further suggest that it may be advantageous to consider some of these fin homologies as nested within the larger framework of homologous fin‐forming morphogenetic fields. We also discuss scenarios of appendage evolution and suggest that modularity may have played a key role in appendage disparification. Fin modules re‐expressed within the boundaries of fin‐forming fields could explain how some fins may have evolved numerous times independently in separate lineages (e.g., adipose fin), or how new fins may have evolved over time (e.g., anterior and posterior dorsal fins, pectoral and pelvic fins). We favour an evolutionary scenario whereby median appendages appeared from a unique field of competence first positioned throughout the dorsal and ventral midlines, which was then redeployed laterally leading to paired appendages.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151971/1/faf12402_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/151971/2/faf12402.pd

    Appropriate model use for predicting elevations and inundation extent for extreme flood events

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    Flood risk assessment is generally studied using flood simulation models; however, flood risk managers often simplify the computational process; this is called a “simplification strategy”. This study investigates the appropriateness of the “simplification strategy” when used as a flood risk assessment tool for areas prone to flash flooding. The 2004 Boscastle, UK, flash flood was selected as a case study. Three different model structures were considered in this study, including: (1) a shock-capturing model, (2) a regular ADI-type flood model and (3) a diffusion wave model, i.e. a zero-inertia approach. The key findings from this paper strongly suggest that applying the “simplification strategy” is only appropriate for flood simulations with a mild slope and over relatively smooth terrains, whereas in areas susceptible to flash flooding (i.e. steep catchments), following this strategy can lead to significantly erroneous predictions of the main parameters—particularly the peak water levels and the inundation extent. For flood risk assessment of urban areas, where the emergence of flash flooding is possible, it is shown to be necessary to incorporate shock-capturing algorithms in the solution procedure, since these algorithms prevent the formation of spurious oscillations and provide a more realistic simulation of the flood levels
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