180 research outputs found

    Betting on the Outcomes of Measurements: A Bayesian Theory of Quantum Probability

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    We develop a systematic approach to quantum probability as a theory of rational betting in quantum gambles. In these games of chance the agent is betting in advance on the outcomes of several (finitely many) incompatible measurements. One of the measurements is subsequently chosen and performed and the money placed on the other measurements is returned to the agent. We show how the rules of rational betting imply all the interesting features of quantum probability, even in such finite gambles. These include the uncertainty principle and the violation of Bell's inequality among others. Quantum gambles are closely related to quantum logic and provide a new semantics to it. We conclude with a philosophical discussion on the interpretation of quantum mechanics.Comment: 21 pages, 2 figure

    Macroscopic objects in quantum mechanics: A combinatorial approach

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    Why we do not see large macroscopic objects in entangled states? There are two ways to approach this question. The first is dynamic: the coupling of a large object to its environment cause any entanglement to decrease considerably. The second approach, which is discussed in this paper, puts the stress on the difficulty to observe a large scale entanglement. As the number of particles n grows we need an ever more precise knowledge of the state, and an ever more carefully designed experiment, in order to recognize entanglement. To develop this point we consider a family of observables, called witnesses, which are designed to detect entanglement. A witness W distinguishes all the separable (unentangled) states from some entangled states. If we normalize the witness W to satisfy |tr(W\rho)| \leq 1 for all separable states \rho, then the efficiency of W depends on the size of its maximal eigenvalue in absolute value; that is, its operator norm ||W||. It is known that there are witnesses on the space of n qbits for which ||W|| is exponential in n. However, we conjecture that for a large majority of n-qbit witnesses ||W|| \leq O(\sqrt{n logn}). Thus, in a non ideal measurement, which includes errors, the largest eigenvalue of a typical witness lies below the threshold of detection. We prove this conjecture for the family of extremal witnesses introduced by Werner and Wolf (Phys. Rev. A 64, 032112 (2001)).Comment: RevTeX, 14 pages, some additions to the published version: A second conjecture added, discussion expanded, and references adde

    Probability and Nonlocality in Many Minds Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

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    We argue that a certain type of many minds (and many worlds) interpretations of quantum mechanics due to Lockwood (and Deutsch) do not provide a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilistic algorithm. By contrast, in Albert and Loewer's version of the many minds interpretation there is a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilities. We consider Albert and Loewer's probability interpretation in the context of Bell-type and GHZ-type states and argue that it exhibits a certain form of nonlocality which is, however, much weaker than Bell's nonlocality.Comment: 22 pages, last section rewritten, to appear in British Journal for the Philosophy of Scienc

    Generalizing Tsirelson's bound on Bell inequalities using a min-max principle

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    Bounds on the norm of quantum operators associated with classical Bell-type inequalities can be derived from their maximal eigenvalues. This quantitative method enables detailed predictions of the maximal violations of Bell-type inequalities.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, RevTeX4, replaced with published versio

    New Bell inequalities for the singlet state: Going beyond the Grothendieck bound

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    Contemporary versions of Bell's argument against local hidden variable (LHV) theories are based on the Clauser Horne Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality, and various attempts to generalize it. The amount of violation of these inequalities cannot exceed the bound set by the Grothendieck constants. However, if we go back to the original derivation by Bell, and use the perfect anti-correlation embodied in the singlet spin state, we can go beyond these bounds. In this paper we derive two-particle Bell inequalities for traceless two-outcome observables, whose violation in the singlet spin state go beyond the Grothendieck constants both for the two and three dimensional cases. Moreover, creating a higher dimensional analog of perfect correlations, and applying a recent result of Alon and his associates (Invent. Math. 163 499 (2006)) we prove that there are two-particle Bell inequalities for traceless two-outcome observables whose violation increases to infinity as the dimension and number of measurements grow. Technically these result are possible because perfect correlations (or anti-correlations) allow us to transport the indices of the inequality from the edges of a bipartite graph to those of the complete graph. Finally, it is shown how to apply these results to mixed Werner states, provided that the noise does not exceed 20%.Comment: 18 pages, two figures, some corrections and additional references, published versio

    Testing the bounds on quantum probabilities

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    Bounds on quantum probabilities and expectation values are derived for experimental setups associated with Bell-type inequalities. In analogy to the classical bounds, the quantum limits are experimentally testable and therefore serve as criteria for the validity of quantum mechanics.Comment: 9 pages, Revte

    Effects and Propositions

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    The quantum logical and quantum information-theoretic traditions have exerted an especially powerful influence on Bub's thinking about the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. This paper discusses both the quantum logical and information-theoretic traditions from the point of view of their representational frameworks. I argue that it is at this level, at the level of its framework, that the quantum logical tradition has retained its centrality to Bub's thought. It is further argued that there is implicit in the quantum information-theoretic tradition a set of ideas that mark a genuinely new alternative to the framework of quantum logic. These ideas are of considerable interest for the philosophy of quantum mechanics, a claim which I defend with an extended discussion of their application to our understanding of the philosophical significance of the no hidden variable theorem of Kochen and Specker.Comment: Presented to the 2007 conference, New Directions in the Foundations of Physic

    Geometry of quantum correlations

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    Consider the set Q of quantum correlation vectors for two observers, each with two possible binary measurements. Quadric (hyperbolic) inequalities which are satisfied by every vector in Q are proved, and equality holds on a two dimensional manifold consisting of the local boxes, and all the quantum correlation vectors that maximally violate the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality. The quadric inequalities are tightly related to CHSH, they are their iterated versions (equation 20). Consequently, it is proved that Q is contained in a hyperbolic cube whose axes lie along the non-local (Popescu, Rohrlich) boxes. As an application, a tight constraint on the rate of local boxes that must be present in every quantum correlation is derived. The inequalities allow testing the validity of quantum mechanics on the basis of data available from experiments which test the violation of CHSH. It is noted how these results can be generalized to the case of n sites, each with two possible binary measurements.Comment: Published version, slight change in titl

    New optimal tests of quantum nonlocality

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    We explore correlation polytopes to derive a set of all Boole-Bell type conditions of possible classical experience which are both maximal and complete. These are compared with the respective quantum expressions for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) case and for two particles with spin state measurements along three directions.Comment: 10 page
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