208 research outputs found

    Manipulation Planning and Control for Shelf Replenishment

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    Manipulation planning and control are relevant building blocks of a robotic system and their tight integration is a key factor to improve robot autonomy and allows robots to perform manipulation tasks of increasing complexity, such as those needed in the in-store logistics domain. Supermarkets contain a large variety of objects to be placed on the shelf layers with specific constraints, doing this with a robot is a challenge and requires a high dexterity. However, an integration of reactive grasping control and motion planning can allow robots to perform such tasks even with grippers with limited dexterity. The main contribution of the paper is a novel method for planning manipulation tasks to be executed using a reactive control layer that provides more control modalities, i.e., slipping avoidance and controlled sliding. Experiments with a new force/tactile sensor equipping the gripper of a mobile manipulator show that the approach allows the robot to successfully perform manipulation tasks unfeasible with a standard fixed grasp.Comment: 8 pages, 12 figures, accepted at RA

    Blood Transfusions and Adverse Events after Colorectal Surgery: A Propensity-Score-Matched Analysis of a Hen-Egg Issue

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    Blood transfusions are considered a risk factor for adverse outcomes after colorectal surgery. However, it is still unclear if they are the cause (the hen) or the consequence (the egg) of adverse events. A prospective database of 4529 colorectal resections gathered over a 12-month period in 76 Italian surgical units (the iCral3 study), reporting patient-, disease-, and procedure-related variables, together with 60-day adverse events, was retrospectively analyzed identifying a subgroup of 304 cases (6.7%) that received intra- and/or postoperative blood transfusions (IPBTs). The endpoints considered were overall and major morbidity (OM and MM, respectively), anastomotic leakage (AL), and mortality (M) rates. After the exclusion of 336 patients who underwent neo-adjuvant treatments, 4193 (92.6%) cases were analyzed through a 1:1 propensity score matching model including 22 covariates. Two well-balanced groups of 275 patients each were obtained: group A, presence of IPBT, and group B, absence of IPBT. Group A vs. group B showed a significantly higher risk of overall morbidity (154 (56%) vs. 84 (31%) events; OR 3.07; 95%CI 2.13-4.43; p = 0.001), major morbidity (59 (21%) vs. 13 (4.7%) events; OR 6.06; 95%CI 3.17-11.6; p = 0.001), and anastomotic leakage (31 (11.3%) vs. 8 (2.9%) events; OR 4.72; 95%CI 2.09-10.66; p = 0.0002). No significant difference was recorded between the two groups concerning the risk of mortality. The original subpopulation of 304 patients that received IPBT was further analyzed considering three variables: appropriateness of BT according to liberal transfusion thresholds, BT following any hemorrhagic and/or major adverse event, and major adverse event following BT without any previous hemorrhagic adverse event. Inappropriate BT was administered in more than a quarter of cases, without any significant influence on any endpoint. The majority of BT was administered after a hemorrhagic or a major adverse event, with significantly higher rates of MM and AL. Finally, a major adverse event followed BT in a minority (4.3%) of cases, with significantly higher MM, AL, and M rates. In conclusion, although the majority of IPBT was administered with the consequence of hemorrhage and/or major adverse events (the egg), after adjustment accounting for 22 covariates, IPBT still resulted in a definite source of a higher risk of major morbidity and anastomotic leakage rates after colorectal surgery (the hen), calling urgent attention to the implementation of patient blood management programs

    Dewatering of excess sludge produced by cas and mbr aerobic treatment plants. effects of biochemical stability and eps composition

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    This paper investigates the behavior of different sludges from several treatment plants at full and pilot scale configured as Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) and Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) plants treating different kinds of wastewaters. The sludges collected were subjected to complete analytical and technological characterization in order to correlate the rheological properties that affect the dewatering behavior to the sludge chemical physical properties. In detail the EPS from the samples collected is extracted and characterized in terms of carbohydrates, proteins, uronic acids and humic acids content. Moreover, once characterized, the sludges were subjected to AD in order to assess their bio-methanation potential and hence their biological stability. The final aim was to find correlations between the WWTP operational parameters (i.e. HRT, SRT, volumetric load coefficient, aeration) that finally affect its chemical composition (i.e. BMP, EPS composition) and the physical behavior of the sludge

    ERAS program adherence-institutionalization, major morbidity and anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal surgery: the iCral2 multicenter prospective study

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    Background Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs influence morbidity rates and length of stay after colorectal surgery (CRS), and may also impact major complications and anastomotic leakage rates. A prospective multicenter observational study to investigate the interactions between ERAS program adherence and early outcomes after elective CRS was carried out. Methods Prospective enrolment of patients submitted to elective CRS with anastomosis in 18 months. Adherence to 21 items of ERAS program was measured upon explicit criteria in every case. After univariate analysis, independent predictors of primary endpoints [major morbidity (MM) and anastomotic leakage (AL) rates] were identified through logistic regression analyses including all significant variables, presenting odds ratios (OR). Results Institutional ERAS protocol was declared by 27 out of 38 (71.0%) participating centers. Median overall adherence to ERAS program items was 71.4%. Among 3830 patients included in the study, MM and AL rates were 4.7% and 4.2%, respectively. MM rates were independently influenced by intra- and/or postoperative blood transfusions (OR 7.79, 95% CI 5.46-11.10; p < 0.0001) and standard anesthesia protocol (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.96; p = 0.028). AL rates were independently influenced by male gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.07; p = 0.021), intra- and/or postoperative blood transfusions (OR 4.29, 95% CI 2.93-6.50; p < 0.0001) and non-standard resections (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01-2.22; p = 0.049). Conclusions This study disclosed wide room for improvement in compliance to several ERAS program items. It failed to detect any significant association between institutionalization and/or adherence rates to ERAS program with primary endpoints. These outcomes were independently influenced by gender, intra- and postoperative blood transfusions, non-standard resections, and standard anesthesia protocol

    Surgeon volume and body mass index influence positive surgical margin risk after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Results in 732 cases

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    Objectives: To evaluate clinicopathological and perioperative factors associated with the risk of focal and non-focal positive surgical margins (PSMs) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).Patients and methods: The study was retrospective and excluded patients who were under androgen-deprivation therapy or had prior treatments. The population included: negative SM cases (control group), focal and non-focal PSM cases (study groups). PSMs were classified as focal when the linear extent of cancer invasion was <= 1 mm and non-focal when >1 mm. The independent association of factors with the risk of focal and non-focal PSMs was assessed by multinomial logistic regression.Results: In all, 732 patients underwent RARP, from January 2013 to December 2017. An extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 342 cases (46.7%). In all, 192 cases (26.3%) had PSMs, which were focal in 133 (18.2%) and non-focal in 59 (8.1%). Independent factors associated with the risk of focal PSMs were body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 0.914; P = 0.006), percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC; OR 1.011; P = 0.015), pathological extracapsular extension (pathological tumour stage [pT]3a; OR 2.064; P = 0.016), and seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b; OR 2.150; P = 0.010). High surgeon volume was a protective factor in having focal PSM (OR 0.574; P = 0.006). Independent predictors of non-focal PSMs were BPC (OR 1,013; P = 0,044), pT3a (OR 4,832; P < 0.001), and pT3b (OR 5,153; P = 0.001).Conclusions: In high-volume centres features related to host, tumour and surgeon volume are factors that predict the risk of focal and non-focal PSMs after RARP

    High surgeon volume and positive surgical margins can predict the risk of biochemical recurrence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

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    Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether any clinical factors are independent predictors of positive surgical margins (PSM), and to assess the association of PSM and biochemical recurrence (BR) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: The population included cases with negative surgical margins (control group) and patients with PSM (study group). Tumor grade was evaluated according to the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) system. A logistic regression model assessed the independent association of factors with the risk of PSM. The risk of BR was assessed by Cox\u2019s multivariate proportional hazards. Results: A total of 732 consecutive patients were evaluated. Extend pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) was performed in 342 cases (46.7%). Overall, 192 cases (26.3%) had PSM. The risk of PSM was positively associated with the percentage of biopsy positive cores (BPC; odds ratio, OR = 1.012; p = 0.004), extracapsular extension (pT3a; OR=2.702; p < 0.0001), invasion of seminal vesicle (pT3b; OR = 2.889; p < 0.0001), but inversely with body mass index (OR = 0.936; p = 0.021), and high surgeon volume (OR = 0.607; p = 0.006). Independent clinical factors associated with the risk of BR were baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA; hazard ratio, HR = 1.064; p = 0.004), BPC (HR = 1.015; p = 0.027), ISUP biopsy grade group (BGG) 2/3 (HR = 2.966; p = 0.003), and BGG 4/5 (HR = 3.122; p = 0.022). Pathologic factors associated with the risk of BR were ISUP group 4/5 (HR = 3.257; p = 0.001), pT3b (HR = 2.900; p = 0.003), and PSM (HR = 2.096; p = 0.045). Conclusions: In our cohort, features related to host, tumor, and surgeon volume are associated with the risk of PSM, which is also an independent parameter predicting BR after RARP. The surgical volume of the operating surgeon is an independent factor that decreases the risk of PSM, and, as such, the risk of BR

    PD45-01\u2003ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL ANAESTHETIC WOUNDS INFILTRATION AND ULTRASOUND TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINAL PLANE (US-TAP) BLOCK IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROBOT-ASSISTED RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: A DOUBLE-BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To determinate bene\ufb01ts of the association of local anaesthetic wounds in\ufb01ltration and US-TAPblock with ropivacaine on postoperative pain, early recovery and hospital stay in patients undergoing robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS: The study is double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Our hypothesis was that the association of wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine would decrease immediate postoperative pain and opioids use. Primary outcomes included postoperative pain and opioids demand during the hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were nausea/vomiting rate, stool passing time, use of pro-kinetics, length of hospital stay and 30-days readmission to the hospital for pain or other US-TAP-block related complications RESULTS: A total of 100 patients who underwent RARP were eligible for the analysis; 57 received the US-TAP block with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine (US-TAP-block group) and 43 did not receive USTAP block (no-US-TAP group). All the patients received the local wound anaesthetic in\ufb01ltration with 20 ml of 0.35% Ropivacaine. USTAP block group showed a decreased mean NRS (2.7vs1.8; p[0.04) and reduced use of opioid (8 vs 2; p[0.01) in the \ufb01rst 24 h. Moreover, we found a shorter mean LOS (4.7 vs 4.2; p[ 0.04) with a reduced use of pro-kinetics during the hospital stay (31 vs 12; p<0.001). No US-TAP-block related complications to were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Association of anaesthetic wound in\ufb01ltration and US-TAP block with Ropivacaine as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen can be safely offered to patients undergoing RARP and ePLND. It improves the immediate post-operative pain control, reducing opioids administration and is associated to a decreased use of pro-kinetics and shorter hospital stay

    Digital twin reference model development to prevent operators' risk in process plants

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    In the literature, many applications of Digital Twin methodologies in the manufacturing, construction and oil and gas sectors have been proposed, but there is still no reference model specifically developed for risk control and prevention. In this context, this work develops a Digital Twin reference model in order to define conceptual guidelines to support the implementation of Digital Twin for risk prediction and prevention. The reference model proposed in this paper is made up of four main layers (Process industry physical space, Communication system, Digital Twin and User space), while the implementation steps of the reference model have been divided into five phases (Development of the risk assessment plan, Development of the communication and control system, Development of Digital Twin tools, Tools integration in a Digital Twin perspective and models and Platform validation). During the design and implementation phases of a Digital Twin, different criticalities must be taken into consideration concerning the need for deterministic transactions, a large number of pervasive devices, and standardization issues. Practical implications of the proposed reference model regard the possibility to detect, identify and develop corrective actions that can affect the safety of operators, the reduction of maintenance and operating costs, and more general improvements of the company business by intervening both in strictly technological and organizational terms

    Prostate volume index and prostatic chronic inflammation have an effect on tumor load at baseline random biopsies in patients with normal DRE and PSA values less than 10\u2009ng/ml: results of 564 consecutive cases

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    Background: To assess the association of prostate volume index (PVI), defined as the ratio of the central transition zone volume (CTZV) to the peripheral zone volume (PZV), and prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) as predictors of prostate cancer (PCA) load in patients presenting with normal digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <= 10 ng/ml at baseline random biopsies. Methods: Parameters evaluated included age, PSA, total prostate volume (TPV), PSA density (PSAD), PVI and PCI. All patients underwent 14 core transperineal randomized biopsies. We considered small and high PCA load patients with no more than three (limited tumor load) and greater than three (extensive tumor load) positive biopsy cores, respectively. The association of factors with the risk of PCA was evaluated by logistic regression analysis, utilizing different multivariate models. Results: 564 Caucasian patients were included. PCA and PCI were detected in 242 (42.9%) and 129 (22.9%) cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, PVI and PCI were independent predictors of the risk of detecting limited or extensive tumor load. The risk of detecting extensive tumor load at baseline biopsies was increased by PSAD above the median and third quartile as well as PVI <= 1 [odds ratio (OR)=1.971] but decreased by PCI (OR=0.185; 95% CI: 0.088-0.388). Conclusions: Higher PVI and the presence of PCI predicted decreased PCA risk in patients presenting with normal DRE, and a PSA <= 10 ng/ml at baseline random biopsy. In this subset of patients, a PVI <= or >1 is able to differentiate patients with PCA or PCI

    High adherence to enhanced recovery pathway independently reduces major morbidity and mortality rates after colorectal surgery: a reappraisal of the iCral2 and iCral3 multicenter prospective studies

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    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) offers lower overall morbidity rates and shorter hospital stay after colorectal surgery (CRS); high adherence rates to ERAS may significantly reduce major morbidity (MM), anastomotic leakage (AL), and mortality (M) rates as well. Methods: Prospective enrollment of patients submitted to elective CRS with anastomosis in two separate 18- and 12-month periods among 78 surgical centers in Italy from 2019 to 2021. Adherence to ERAS pathway items was measured upon explicit criteria in every case. After univariate analysis, independent predictors of primary endpoints (MM, AL, and M rates) were identified through logistic regression analyses, presenting odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: An institutional ERAS status was declared by 48 out of 78 (61.5%) participating centers. The median overall adherence to ERAS was 75%. Among 8,359 patients included in both studies, MM, AL, and M rates were 6.3%, 4.4%, and 1.0%, respectively. Several patient-related and treatment-related variables showed independently higher rates for primary endpoints: male gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists class III, neoadjuvant treatment, perioperative steroids, intra- and/or postoperative blood transfusions, length of the operation >180’, surgery for malignancy. On the other hand, ERAS adherence >85% independently reduced MM (OR, 0.91) and M (OR, 0.25) rates, whereas no mechanical bowel preparation independently reduced AL (OR, 0.68) rates. Conclusions: Among other patient- or treatment-related variables, ERAS adherence >85% independently reduced MM and M rates, whereas no mechanical bowel preparation independently reduced AL rates after CRS
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