135 research outputs found

    Combining Rewriting and Incremental Materialisation Maintenance for Datalog Programs with Equality

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    Materialisation precomputes all consequences of a set of facts and a datalog program so that queries can be evaluated directly (i.e., independently from the program). Rewriting optimises materialisation for datalog programs with equality by replacing all equal constants with a single representative; and incremental maintenance algorithms can efficiently update a materialisation for small changes in the input facts. Both techniques are critical to practical applicability of datalog systems; however, we are unaware of an approach that combines rewriting and incremental maintenance. In this paper we present the first such combination, and we show empirically that it can speed up updates by several orders of magnitude compared to using either rewriting or incremental maintenance in isolation.Comment: All proofs contained in the appendix. 7 pages + 4 pages appendix. 7 algorithms and one table with evaluation result

    Model-theoretic characterisations of description logics

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    The growing need for computer aided processing of knowledge has led to an increasing interest in description logics (DLs), which are applied to encode knowledge in order to make it explicit and accessible to logical reasoning. DLs and in particular the family around the DL ALC have therefore been thoroughly investigated w.r.t. their complexity theory and proof theory. The question arises which expressiveness these logics actually have. The expressiveness of a logic can be inferred by a model theoretic characterisation. On concept level, these DLs are akin to modal logics whose model theoretic properties have been investigated. Yet the model theoretic investigation of the DLs with their TBoxes, which are an original part of DLs usually not considered in context of modal logics, have remained unstudied. This thesis studies the model theoretic properties of ALC, ALCI, ALCQ, as well as ALCO, ALCQO, ALCQIO and EL. It presents model theoretic properties, which characterise these logics as fragments of the first order logic (FO). The characterisations are not only carried out on concept level and on concept level extended by the universal role, but focus in particular on TBoxes. The properties used to characterise the logics are `natural' notions w.r.t. the logic under investigation: On the concept-level, each of the logics is characterised by an adapted form of bisimulation and simulation, respectively. TBoxes of ALC, ALCI and ALCQ are characterised as fragments of FO which are invariant under global bisimulation and disjoint unions. The logics ALCO, ALCQO and ALCQIO, which incorporate individuals, are characterised w.r.t. to the class K of all interpretations which interpret individuals as singleton sets. The characterisations for TBoxes of ALCO and ALCQO both require, additionally to being invariant under the appropriate notion of global bisimulation and an adapted version of disjoint unions, that an FO-sentence is, under certain circumstances, preserved under forward generated subinterpretations. FO-sentences equivalent to ALCQIO-TBoxes, are - due to ALCQIO's inverse roles - characterised similarly to ALCO and ALCQO but have as third additional requirement that they are preserved under generated subinterpretations. EL as sub-boolean DL is characterised on concept level as the FO-fragment which is preserved under simulation and preserved under direct products. Equally valid is the characterisation by being preserved under simulation and having minimal models. For EL-TBoxes, a global version of simulation was not sufficient but FO-sentences of EL-TBoxes are invariant under global equi-simulation, disjoint unions and direct products. For each of these description logics, the characteristic concepts are explicated and the characterisation is accompanied by an investigation under which notion of saturation the logic in hand enjoys the Hennessy-and-Milner-Property. As application of the results we determine the minimal globally bisimilar companion w.r.t. ALCQO-bisimulation and introduce the L1-to-L2-rewritability problem for TBoxes, where L1 and L2 are (description) logics. The latter is the problem to decide whether or not an L1-TBox can be equivalently expressed as L2-TBox. We give algorithms which decide ALCI-to-ALC-rewritability and ALC-to-EL-rewritability

    Description logic TBoxes: Model-theoretic characterizations and rewritability

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    Abstract We characterize the expressive power of description logic (DL) TBoxes, both for expressive DLs such as ALC and ALCQIO and lightweight DLs such as DL-Lite and EL. Our characterizations are relative to first-order logic, based on a wide range of semantic notions such as bisimulation, equisimulation, disjoint union, and direct product. We exemplify the use of the characterizations by a first study of the following novel family of decision problems: given a TBox T formulated in a DL L, decide whether T can be equivalently rewritten as a TBox in the fragment L of L

    EU-Rotate_N – a decision support system – to predict environmental and economic consequences of the management of nitrogen fertiliser in crop rotations

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    A model has been developed which assesses the economic and environmental performance of crop rotations, in both conventional and organic cropping, for over 70 arable and horticultural crops, and a wide range of growing conditions in Europe. The model, though originally based on the N_ABLE model, has been completely rewritten and contains new routines to simulate root development, the mineralisation and release of nitrogen (N) from soil organic matter and crop residues, and water dynamics in soil. New routines have been added to estimate the effects of sub-optimal rates of N and spacing on the marketable outputs and gross margins. The model provides a mechanism for generating scenarios to represent a range of differing crop and fertiliser management strategies which can be used to evaluate their effects on yield, gross margin and losses of nitrogen through leaching. Such testing has revealed that nitrogen management can be improved and that there is potential to increase gross margins whilst reducing nitrogen losses

    Prompt Optical Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts

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    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure simultaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A search for optical counterparts to six GRBs with localization errors of 1 square degree or better produced no detections. The earliest limiting sensitivity is m(ROTSE) > 13.1 at 10.85 seconds (5 second exposure) after the gamma-ray rise, and the best limit is m(ROTSE) > 16.0 at 62 minutes (897 second exposure). These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. Consideration of the gamma-ray fluence and peak flux for these bursts and for GRB990123 indicates that there is not a strong positive correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ApJ Letter
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