9,378 research outputs found

    An Ammonia Spectral Atlas of Dense Cores in Perseus

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    We present ammonia observations of 193 dense cores and core candidates in the Perseus molecular cloud made using the Robert F. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We simultaneously observed the NH3(1,1), NH3(2,2), CCS (2_1 -> 1_0) and CC34S (2_1 -> 1_0) transitions near 23 GHz for each of the targets with a spectral resolution of dv ~ 0.024 km/s. We find ammonia emission associated with nearly all of the (sub)millimeter sources as well as at several positions with no associated continuum emission. For each detection, we have measured physical properties by fitting a simple model to every spectral line simultaneously. Where appropriate, we have refined the model by accounting for low optical depths, multiple components along the line of sight and imperfect coupling to the GBT beam. For the cores in Perseus, we find a typical kinetic temperature of T=11 K, a typical column density of N(NH3)~ 10^14.5 /cm^2 and velocity dispersions ranging from sigma_v = 0.07 km/s to 0.7 km/s. However, many cores with velocity dispersions > 0.2 km/s show evidence for multiple velocity components along the line of sight.Comment: 19 pages; Accepted to ApJS; version with high resolution figures available at http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/COMPLETE/papers/nh3-paper1.pdf ; online data at http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/COMPLETE/data_html_pages/GBT_NH3.htm

    The initial conditions of stellar protocluster formation. II. A catalogue of starless and protostellar clumps embedded in IRDCs in the Galactic longitude range 15<l<55

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    We present a catalogue of starless and protostellar clumps associated with infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) in a 40 degrees wide region of the inner Galactic Plane (b<1). We have extracted the far-infrared (FIR) counterparts of 3493 IRDCs with known distance in the Galactic longitude range 15<l<55 and searched for the young clumps using Hi-GAL, the survey of the Galactic Plane carried out with the Herschel satellite. Each clump is identified as a compact source detected at 160, 250 and 350 mum. The clumps have been classified as protostellar or starless, based on their emission (or lack of emission) at 70 mum. We identify 1723 clumps, 1056 (61%) of which are protostellar and 667 (39%) starless. These clumps are found within 764 different IRDCs, 375 (49%) of which are only associated with protostellar clumps, 178 (23%) only with starless clumps, and 211 (28%) with both categories of clumps. The clumps have a median mass of 250 M_sun and range up to >10^4$ M_sun in mass and up to 10^5 L_sun in luminosity. The mass-radius distribution shows that almost 30% of the starless clumps identified in this survey could form high-mass stars, however these massive clumps are confined in only ~4% of the IRDCs. Assuming a minimum mass surface density threshold for the formation of high-mass stars, the comparison of the numbers of massive starless clumps and those already containing embedded sources suggests an upper limit lifetime for the starless phase of 10^5 years for clumps with a mass M>500 M_sun.Comment: accepted for publication in MNRAS. Online catalogues available soon, please contact the authors if intereste

    Tightening the belt: Constraining the mass and evolution in SDC335

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    Recent ALMA observations identified one of the most massive star-forming cores yet observed in the Milky Way; SDC335-MM1, within the infrared dark cloud SDC335.579-0.292. Along with an accompanying core MM2, SDC335 appears to be in the early stages of its star formation process. In this paper we aim to constrain the properties of the stars forming within these two massive millimetre sources. Observations of SDC335 at 6, 8, 23 and 25GHz were made with the ATCA. We report the results of these continuum measurements, which combined with archival data, allow us to build and analyse the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the compact sources in SDC335. Three HCHII regions within SDC335 are identified, two within the MM1 core. For each HCHII region, a free-free emission curve is fit to the data allowing the derivation of the sources' emission measure, ionising photon flux and electron density. Using these physical properties we assign each HCHII region a ZAMS spectral type, finding two protostars with characteristics of spectral type B1.5 and one with a lower limit of B1-B1.5. Ancillary data from infrared to mm wavelength are used to construct free-free component subtracted SEDs for the mm-cores, allowing calculation of the bolometric luminosities and revision of the previous gas mass estimates. The measured luminosities for the two mm-cores are lower than expected from accreting sources displaying characteristics of the ZAMS spectral type assigned to them. The protostars are still actively accreting, suggesting that a mechanism is limiting the accretion luminosity, we present the case for two different mechanisms capable of causing this. Finally, using the ZAMS mass values as lower limit constraints, a final stellar population for SDC335 was synthesised finding SDC335 is likely to be in the process of forming a stellar cluster comparable to the Trapezium Cluster and NGC6334 I(N).Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication in A&

    Search for grain growth towards the center of L1544

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    In dense and cold molecular clouds dust grains are surrounded by thick icy mantles. It is however not clear if dust growth and coagulation take place before the switch-on of a protostar. This is an important issue, as the presence of large grains may affect the chemical structure of dense cloud cores, including the dynamically important ionization fraction, and the future evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks. To study this further, we focus on L1544, one of the most centrally concentrated pre-stellar cores on the verge of star formation, and with a well-known physical structure. We observed L1544 at 1.2 and 2 mm using NIKA, a new receiver at the IRAM 30 m telescope, and we used data from the Herschel Space Observatory archive. We find no evidence of grain growth towards the center of L1544 at the available angular resolution. Therefore, we conclude that single dish observations do not allow us to investigate grain growth toward the pre-stellar core L1544 and high sensitivity interferometer observations are needed. We predict that dust grains can grow to 200 őľ\mum in size toward the central ~300 au of L1544. This will imply a dust opacity change by a factor of ~2.5 at 1.2 mm, which can be detected using the Atacama Large Millimeter and submillimeter Array (ALMA) at different wavelengths and with an angular resolution of 2".Comment: 12 pages, 14 figures. Accepted for publication in A&

    Kinematics of dense gas in the L1495 filament

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    We study the kinematics of the dense gas of starless and protostellar cores traced by the N2D+(2-1), N2H+(1-0), DCO+(2-1), and H13CO+(1-0) transitions along the L1495 filament and the kinematic links between the cores and the surrounding molecular cloud. We measure velocity dispersions, local and total velocity gradients and estimate the specific angular momenta of 13 dense cores in the four transitions using the on-the-fly observations with the IRAM 30 m antenna. To study a possible connection to the filament gas, we use the fit results of the C18O(1-0) survey performed by Hacar et al. (2013). All cores show similar properties along the 10 pc-long filament. N2D+(2-1) shows the most centrally concentrated structure, followed by N2H+(1-0) and DCO+(2-1), which show similar spatial extent, and H13CO+(1-0). The non-thermal contribution to the velocity dispersion increases from higher to lower density tracers. The change of magnitude and direction of the total velocity gradients depending on the tracer used indicates that internal motions change at different depths within the cloud. N2D+ and N2H+ show smaller gradients than the lower density tracers DCO+ and H13CO+, implying a loss of specific angular momentum at small scales. At the level of cloud-core transition, the core's external envelope traced by DCO+ and H13CO+ is spinning up, consistent with conservation of angular momentum during core contraction. C18O traces the more extended cloud material whose kinematics is not affected by the presence of dense cores. The decrease in specific angular momentum towards the centres of the cores shows the importance of local magnetic fields to the small scale dynamics of the cores. The random distributions of angles between the total velocity gradient and large scale magnetic field suggests that the magnetic fields may become important only in the high density gas within dense cores.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A. The abstract is shortene

    Striations in the Taurus molecular cloud: Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or MHD waves?

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    The origin of striations aligned along the local magnetic field direction in the translucent envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud is examined with new observations of 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 emission obtained with the 10~m submillimeter telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory. These data identify a periodic pattern of excess blue and redshifted emission that is responsible for the striations. For both 12CO and 13CO, spatial variations of the J=2-1 to J=1-0 line ratio are small and are not spatially correlated with the striation locations. A medium comprised of unresolved CO emitting substructures (cells) with a beam area filling factor less than unity at any velocity is required to explain the average line ratios and brightness temperatures. We propose that the striations result from the modulation of velocities and the beam filling factor of the cells as a result of either the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or magnetosonic waves propagating through the envelope of the Taurus molecular cloud. Both processes are likely common features in molecular clouds that are sub-Alfvenic and may explain low column density, cirrus-like features similarly aligned with the magnetic field observed throughout the interstellar medium in far-infrared surveys of dust emission.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    The role of noise and initial conditions in the asymptotic solution of a bounded confidence, continuous-opinion model

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    We study a model for continuous-opinion dynamics under bounded confidence. In particular, we analyze the importance of the initial distribution of opinions in determining the asymptotic configuration. Thus, we sketch the structure of attractors of the dynamical system, by means of the numerical computation of the time evolution of the agents density. We show that, for a given bound of confidence, a consensus can be encouraged or prevented by certain initial conditions. Furthermore, a noisy perturbation is added to the system with the purpose of modeling the free will of the agents. As a consequence, the importance of the initial condition is partially replaced by that of the statistical distribution of the noise. Nevertheless, we still find evidence of the influence of the initial state upon the final configuration for a short range of the bound of confidence parameter

    Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 4: Six-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

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    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, T40-800b/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panels D). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) effects on the compressive response of the panel were studied
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