278 research outputs found

    Oxygen and Sodium Abundances in M13 (NGC 6205) Giants: Linking Globular Cluster Formation Scenarios, Deep Mixing, and Post-RGB Evolution

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    We present O, Na, and Fe abundances, as well as radial velocities, for 113 red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster M13. The abundances and velocities are based on spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph, and the observations range in luminosity from the horizontal branch (HB) to RGB-tip. The results are examined in the context of recent globular cluster formation scenarios. We find that M13 exhibits many key characteristics that suggest its formation and chemical enrichment are well-described by current models. Some of these observations include: the central concentration of O-poor stars, the notable decrease in [O/Fe] (but small increase in [Na/Fe]) with increasing luminosity that affects primarily the "extreme" population, the small fraction of stars with halo-like composition, and the paucity of O-poor AGB stars. In agreement with recent work, we conclude that the most O-poor M13 giants are likely He-enriched and that most (all?) O-poor RGB stars evolve to become extreme HB and AGB-manqu\'e stars. In contrast, the "primordial" and "intermediate" population stars appear to experience standard HB and AGB evolution.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 18 pages; 3 figures; 1 tabl

    Phosphorus Abundances in FGK Stars

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    We measured phosphorus abundances in 22 FGK dwarfs and giants that span --0.55 << [Fe/H] << 0.2 using spectra obtained with the Phoenix high resolution infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall 4m telescope, the Gemini South Telescope, and the Arcturus spectral atlas. We fit synthetic spectra to the P I feature at 10581 A˚\AA to determine abundances for our sample. Our results are consistent with previously measured phosphorus abundances; the average [P/Fe] ratio measured in [Fe/H] bins of 0.2 dex for our stars are within \sim 1 σ\sigma compared to averages from other IR phosphorus studies. Our study provides more evidence that models of chemical evolution using the results of theoretical yields are under producing phosphorus compared to the observed abundances. Our data better fit a chemical evolution model with phosphorus yields increased by a factor of 2.75 compared to models with unadjusted yields. We also found average [P/Si] = 0.02 ±\pm 0.07 and [P/S] = 0.15 ±\pm 0.15 for our sample, showing no significant deviations from the solar ratios for [P/Si] and [P/S] ratios.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, Accepted to Ap

    A comparative study of two 47 Tuc giant stars with different s-process enrichment

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    Here we aim to understand the origin of 47 Tuc's La-rich star Lee 4710. We report abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu, and present a detailed abundance analysis of two 47 Tuc stars with similar stellar parameters but different slow neutron-capture (s-)process enrichment. Star Lee 4710 has the highest known La abundance ratio in this cluster ([La/Fe] = 1.14), and star Lee 4626 is known to have normal s-process abundances (e.g., [Ba/Eu]<0<0). The nucleosynthetic pattern of elements with Z\gtrsim56 for star Lee 4710 agrees with the predicted yields of a 1.3M1.3M_{\odot} asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Therefore, Lee 4710 may have been enriched by mass transfer from a more massive AGB companion, which is compatible with its location far away from the center of this relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H]0.7\sim-0.7) globular cluster. A further analysis comparing the abundance pattern of Lee 4710 with data available in the literature reveals that nine out of the 200\sim200 47 Tuc stars previously studied show strong s-process enhancements that point towards later enrichment by more massive AGB stars.Comment: ApJL in press. 6 pages, 4 figure

    A Na I Absorption Map of the Small-Scale Structure in the Interstellar Gas Toward M15

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    Using the DensePak fiber optic array on the KPNO WIYN telescope, we have obtained high S/N echelle spectra of the Na I D wavelength region toward the central 27" x 43" of the globular cluster M15 at a spatial resolution of 4". The spectra exhibit significant interstellar Na I absorption at LSR velocities of +3 km/s (LISM component) and +68 km/s (IVC component). Both components vary appreciably in strength on these scales. The derived Na I column densities differ by a factor of 4 across the LISM absorption map and by a factor of 16 across the IVC map. Assuming distances of 500 pc and 1500 pc for the LISM and IVC clouds, these maps show evidence of significant ISM structure down to the minimum scales of 2000 AU and 6000 AU probed in these absorbers. The smallest-scale N(Na I) variations observed in the M15 LISM and IVC maps are typically comparable to or higher than the values found at similar scales in previous studies of interstellar Na I structure toward binary stars. The physical implications of the small and larger-scale Na I features observed in the M15 maps are discussed in terms of variations in the H I column density as well as in the Na ionization equilibrium.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Chlorine Isotope Ratios in M Giants

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    We have measured the chlorine isotope ratio in six M giant stars using HCl 1-0 P8 features at 3.7 microns with R \sim 50,000 spectra from Phoenix on Gemini South. The average Cl isotope ratio for our sample of stars is 2.66 ±\pm 0.58 and the range of measured Cl isotope ratios is 1.76 << 35^{35}Cl/37^{37}Cl << 3.42. The solar system meteoric Cl isotope ratio of 3.13 is consistent with the range seen in the six stars. We suspect the large variations in Cl isotope ratio are intrinsic to the stars in our sample given the uncertainties. Our average isotopic ratio is higher than the value of 1.80 for the solar neighborhood at solar metallicity predicted by galactic chemical evolution models. Finally the stellar isotope ratios in our sample are similar to those measured in the interstellar medium.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures, Accepted to A

    Detailed Abundances for a Large Sample of Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

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    47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and GC formation in massive more metal-rich GCs since is the closest, massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive globular cluster 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multi-fiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4-m telescope and the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H]=--0.79±\pm0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as over-abundances of alpha-elements ([\alpha/\mbox{Fe}]\sim0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r-process dominated ([Eu/La]=+0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anti-correlation, a signature typically seen in Galactic globular clusters, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] \sim\,--0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A KS-test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of AGB nucleosynthesis yields.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    NGC 7789: An Open Cluster Case Study

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    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 32 giants in the open cluster NGC 7789 using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO Hydra spectrograph. We explore differences in atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances caused by the use of the linelist developed for the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) compared to one based on Arcturus used in our previous work. [Fe/H] values decrease when using the GES linelist instead of the Arcturus-based linelist; these differences are probably driven by systematically lower (~ -0.1 dex) GES surface gravities. Using the GES linelist we determine abundances for 10 elements - Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Ni, Zr, Ba, and La. We find the cluster's average metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.03 +/- 0.07 dex, in good agreement with literature values, and a lower [Mg/Fe] abundance than has been reported before for this cluster (0.11 +/- 0.05 dex). We also find the neutron-capture element barium to be highly enhanced - [Ba/Fe] = +0.48 +/- 0.08 - and disparate from cluster measurements of neutron-capture elements La and Zr (-0.08 +/- 0.05 and 0.08 +/- 0.08, respectively). This is in accordance with recent discoveries of supersolar Ba enhancement in young clusters along with more modest enhancement of other neutron-capture elements formed in similar environments.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, Table 1 typo fixe
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