20 research outputs found

    Hierarchical Nanoflake Surface Driven by Spontaneous Wrinkling of Polyelectrolyte/Metal Complexed Films

    No full text
    A mechanical or physical change observed in nanocomposite thin films has recently offered new opportunities to generate intriguing nanostructures. In this study, we present a novel means of creating a hierarchically developed nanoflake structure by exploiting surface wrinkles that occur during the incorporation process of metallic nanoparticles into layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin films. The PEM film composed with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) allows for facilitated cationic exchange reaction within the film even after the electrostatic complexation and chemical cross-linking reaction. The subsequent reduction process induces an <i>in situ</i> complexation of metallic nanoparticles with a PEM matrix, causing an accumulation of lateral compressive stress for surface wrinkling. The wrinkling characteristics of the complexed films can be theoretically interpreted by employing the gradationally swollen film model, whereby a gradual change in the elastic property along the axial direction of the film can be appropriately reflected. In addition, wrinkled surfaces are further processed to form vertically aligned and hierarchically ordered nanoflakes after selective removal of the PEM matrix with plasma ashing. Consequently, superhydrophobic surface properties (water contact angle = 170┬░, sliding angle <1┬░) can be attained from the hierarchical nanoflake structure. The method presented here is advantageous in that large-scale preparation can be readily implemented by a stepwise dipping process without resorting to specific patterning or a serially applied complex structuring process, which can provide a promising platform technique for various surface engineering applications

    Nanoporous Block Copolymer Membranes for Ultrafiltration: A Simple Approach to Size Tunability

    No full text
    Nanoporous structures were obtained by the self-assembly of polystyrene-<i>b</i>-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-<i>b</i>-PMMA) block copolymers (BCP) where, in thick films, cylindrical microdomains were oriented normal to the substrate and air interfaces, and in the interior of the films, the microdomains were randomly oriented. Continuous nanopores that penetrated through the film were readily produced by a simple preferential swelling of the PMMA microdomains. The confined swelling and rapid contraction of PMMA microdomains generated well-defined uniform pores with diameters to 17.5 nm. The size selectivity and rejection of Au nanoparticles (NPs) for these ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were demonstrated, suggesting an efficient route to tunable, noncomponent-degradative UF membranes

    Self-Organized Anisotropic Wrinkling of Molecularly Aligned Liquid Crystalline Polymer

    No full text
    Anisotropic wrinkling which utilizes the anisotropic nature of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) is demonstrated as a means of physical self-assembly to produce periodic microstructures. Through the plasma treatment on the molecularly aligned LCP film surface, one-dimensionally ordered wrinkle pattern was spontaneously formed on glass substrates without employing external thin-film deposition or prestrain control of the system. Experimental results indicate that the directionality of the wrinkle pattern can be tailored by the structural ordering of LCP molecules in the bilayer system of a hard skin layer on a soft substrate. Studies on process variables, such as the plasma treatment time and the film thickness, were conducted to figure out the effect on the wrinkling morphology. Due to its spatial periodicity over a large area and undemanding requirement of the process, this approach can be a candidate for the microfabrication in various applications

    Self-Organized Anisotropic Wrinkling of Molecularly Aligned Liquid Crystalline Polymer

    No full text
    Anisotropic wrinkling which utilizes the anisotropic nature of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) is demonstrated as a means of physical self-assembly to produce periodic microstructures. Through the plasma treatment on the molecularly aligned LCP film surface, one-dimensionally ordered wrinkle pattern was spontaneously formed on glass substrates without employing external thin-film deposition or prestrain control of the system. Experimental results indicate that the directionality of the wrinkle pattern can be tailored by the structural ordering of LCP molecules in the bilayer system of a hard skin layer on a soft substrate. Studies on process variables, such as the plasma treatment time and the film thickness, were conducted to figure out the effect on the wrinkling morphology. Due to its spatial periodicity over a large area and undemanding requirement of the process, this approach can be a candidate for the microfabrication in various applications

    Carbohydrate-Functionalized rGO as an Effective Cancer Vaccine for Stimulating Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells and Inhibiting Tumor Growth

    No full text
    Efficient delivery of antigens to dendritic cells (DCs), potent antigen-presenting cells, and subsequent antigen presentation to initiate the production of activated cytotoxic T cells are vital parameters that determine the success of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we report dextran-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO-dextran) as an antigen delivery carrier for cancer immunotherapy. We synthesized dextran-functionalized rGO, where the dextran component facilitated good colloidal stability by exposing hydroxyl groups on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and also enhanced cellular uptake via interaction with carbohydrate receptors present on DCs. High surface area and intrinsic hydrophobic surface of rGO facilitated high loading of the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We found that rGO-dextran efficiently delivered OVA to DCs and enhanced the antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I). In addition, the release of inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-╬▒, for DCs incubated with OVA-loaded rGO-dextran was remarkably higher than that for those incubated with soluble OVA. We also demonstrated that OVA-loaded rGO-dextran induced production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells in vivo and significantly inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, the proposed rGO-dextran could be a potent candidate for cancer vaccine and other immunotherapy

    One-Step Generation of Multifunctional Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules <i>via</i> Nanoscale Interfacial Complexation in Emulsion (NICE)

    No full text
    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules represent versatile stimuli-responsive structures that enable the encapsulation, protection, and release of active agents. Their conventional preparation methods, however, tend to be time-consuming, yield low encapsulation efficiency, and seldom allow for the dual incorporation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, limiting their widespread utilization. In this work, we present a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte microcapsules in one step based on nanoscale interfacial complexation in emulsions (NICE) followed by spontaneous droplet hatching. NICE microcapsules can incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials and also can be induced to trigger the release of encapsulated materials by changes in the solution pH or ionic strength. We also show that NICE microcapsules can be functionalized with nanomaterials to exhibit useful functionality, such as response to a magnetic field and disassembly in response to light. NICE represents a potentially transformative method to prepare multifunctional nanoengineered polyelectrolyte microcapsules for various applications such as drug delivery and cell mimicry

    One-Step Generation of Multifunctional Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules <i>via</i> Nanoscale Interfacial Complexation in Emulsion (NICE)

    No full text
    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules represent versatile stimuli-responsive structures that enable the encapsulation, protection, and release of active agents. Their conventional preparation methods, however, tend to be time-consuming, yield low encapsulation efficiency, and seldom allow for the dual incorporation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, limiting their widespread utilization. In this work, we present a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte microcapsules in one step based on nanoscale interfacial complexation in emulsions (NICE) followed by spontaneous droplet hatching. NICE microcapsules can incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials and also can be induced to trigger the release of encapsulated materials by changes in the solution pH or ionic strength. We also show that NICE microcapsules can be functionalized with nanomaterials to exhibit useful functionality, such as response to a magnetic field and disassembly in response to light. NICE represents a potentially transformative method to prepare multifunctional nanoengineered polyelectrolyte microcapsules for various applications such as drug delivery and cell mimicry

    One-Step Generation of Multifunctional Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules <i>via</i> Nanoscale Interfacial Complexation in Emulsion (NICE)

    No full text
    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules represent versatile stimuli-responsive structures that enable the encapsulation, protection, and release of active agents. Their conventional preparation methods, however, tend to be time-consuming, yield low encapsulation efficiency, and seldom allow for the dual incorporation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, limiting their widespread utilization. In this work, we present a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte microcapsules in one step based on nanoscale interfacial complexation in emulsions (NICE) followed by spontaneous droplet hatching. NICE microcapsules can incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials and also can be induced to trigger the release of encapsulated materials by changes in the solution pH or ionic strength. We also show that NICE microcapsules can be functionalized with nanomaterials to exhibit useful functionality, such as response to a magnetic field and disassembly in response to light. NICE represents a potentially transformative method to prepare multifunctional nanoengineered polyelectrolyte microcapsules for various applications such as drug delivery and cell mimicry

    One-Step Generation of Multifunctional Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules <i>via</i> Nanoscale Interfacial Complexation in Emulsion (NICE)

    No full text
    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules represent versatile stimuli-responsive structures that enable the encapsulation, protection, and release of active agents. Their conventional preparation methods, however, tend to be time-consuming, yield low encapsulation efficiency, and seldom allow for the dual incorporation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, limiting their widespread utilization. In this work, we present a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte microcapsules in one step based on nanoscale interfacial complexation in emulsions (NICE) followed by spontaneous droplet hatching. NICE microcapsules can incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials and also can be induced to trigger the release of encapsulated materials by changes in the solution pH or ionic strength. We also show that NICE microcapsules can be functionalized with nanomaterials to exhibit useful functionality, such as response to a magnetic field and disassembly in response to light. NICE represents a potentially transformative method to prepare multifunctional nanoengineered polyelectrolyte microcapsules for various applications such as drug delivery and cell mimicry

    One-Step Generation of Multifunctional Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules <i>via</i> Nanoscale Interfacial Complexation in Emulsion (NICE)

    No full text
    Polyelectrolyte microcapsules represent versatile stimuli-responsive structures that enable the encapsulation, protection, and release of active agents. Their conventional preparation methods, however, tend to be time-consuming, yield low encapsulation efficiency, and seldom allow for the dual incorporation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials, limiting their widespread utilization. In this work, we present a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte microcapsules in one step based on nanoscale interfacial complexation in emulsions (NICE) followed by spontaneous droplet hatching. NICE microcapsules can incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials and also can be induced to trigger the release of encapsulated materials by changes in the solution pH or ionic strength. We also show that NICE microcapsules can be functionalized with nanomaterials to exhibit useful functionality, such as response to a magnetic field and disassembly in response to light. NICE represents a potentially transformative method to prepare multifunctional nanoengineered polyelectrolyte microcapsules for various applications such as drug delivery and cell mimicry
    corecore