12,075 research outputs found

    Message from the Editor

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    An introduction to this issue by the editor-in-chief

    Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

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    This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). <br><br> This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. <br><br> The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO<sub>2</sub> since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1&ndash;2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval

    Nowcasting of convective cells over Italian Peninsula

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    International audienceThe aim of the study is the individuation of convective cells over the Italian peninsula with the conjunction use of geostationary satellite data (METEOSAT, MSG satellite) in the IR and WV channels and lightning data. We will use GCD (Global Convective Diagnostic) algorithm developed at Aviation Weather Centre (AWC) of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). This algorithm is based on the idea that a deep convective cloud will not have any significant moisture above it. This technique works quite well at identifying active deep convection and can be applied to all the world's geostationary satellites. However it does not always agree with lightning sensors. Low topped convection with lightning will be missed. We will extend the capabilities of GCD using lightning data. The new product will be validate over different cases in the central Italy using the C-band polarimetric radar of ISAC-CNR (Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-of the Italian National Research Council) Rome

    From research to clinical practice: a systematic review of the implementation of psychological interventions for chronic headache in adults

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    Background: Psychological interventions have been proved to be effective in chronic headache (CH) in adults. Nevertheless, no data exist about their actual implementation into standard clinical settings. We aimed at critically depicting the current application of psychological interventions for CH into standard care exploring barriers and facilitators to their implementation. Secondarily, main outcomes of the most recent psychological interventions for CH in adults have been summarized. Methods: We conducted a systematic review through PubMed and PsycINFO in the time range 2008-2018. A quality analysis according to the QATSDD tool and a narrative synthesis were performed. We integrated results by: contacting the corresponding author of each paper; exploring the website of the clinical centers cited in the papers. Results: Of the 938 identified studies, 28 papers were selected, whose quality largely varied with an average %QATSDD quality score of 64.88%. Interventions included CBT (42.85%), multi-disciplinary treatments (22.43%), relaxation training (17.86%), biofeedback (7.14%), or other interventions (10.72%). Treatments duration (1 day-9 months) and intensity varied, with a prevalence of individual-basis implementation. The majority of the studies focused on all primary headaches; 4 studies focused on medication-overuse headache. Most of the studies suggest interventions as effective, with the reduction in frequency of attacks as the most reported outcome (46.43%). Studies were distributed in different countries, with a prevalent and balanced distribution in USA and Europe. Ten researches (35.71%) were performed in academic contexts, 11 (39.28%) in clinical settings, 7 (25%) in pain/headache centres. Interventions providers were professionals with certified experience. Most of the studies were funded with private or public funding. Two contacted authors answered to our e-mail survey, with only one intervention implemented in the routine clinical practice. Only in three out of the 16 available websites a reference to the implementation into the clinical setting was reported. Conclusion: Analysis of contextual barriers/facilitators and cost-effectiveness should be included in future studies, and contents regarding dissemination/implementation of interventions should be incorporated in the professional training of clinical scientists. This can help in filling the gap between the existing published research and treatments actually offered to people with CH

    Study of the surface water circulation in San Blas channel (Argentina) using landsat imagery

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    Este trabalho analisa a turbidez e a circulação da agua no canal San Blas durante um ciclo de maré teórico através de imagens satelitais. Foram utilizadas 8 imagens Landsat TM e ETM adquiridas em condições de céu claro e ao longo de diferentes momentos da maré. As imagens foram proporcionadas pela Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) y pelo Serviço Geológico dos Estados Unidos (USGS). As correções geométricas e radiométricas foram realizadas nas bandas do espectro visível e do infravermelho próximo, utilizando técnicas padrões de processamento digital. Foi aplicada a correção atmosférica COST (CHAVEZ, 1996). Foi realizada uma classificação ISODATA não supervisionada para identificar diferentes níveis de turbidez al longo do canal e zonas adjacentes. Os resultados sugerem que o transporte de sedimento em suspensão para a boca do canal se da ao longo de ambos flancos, pela ação das correntes de refluxo. Estas correntes geram um delta de refluxo com uma tendência de rotação para a direção sul. As correntes de fluxo provocam turbidez principalmente sobre a costa sul do canal, gerando um delta de fluxo com bancos alargados na direção das correntes de maré. As plumas de turbidez permitiram identificar padrões gerais de circulação da maré.This paper deals with the application of satellite images to study turbidity and water circulation patterns in San Blas channel during a theoretical tidal cycle. Eight Landsat TM and ETM images acquired under clear-sky conditions and representing different tidal stages were selected from a pool of Landsat images provided by the argentinean National Commission of Space Activities (CONAE) and the US Geological Survey. Standard digital image processing techniques were used to perform geometric and radiometric corrections on the visible and near-infrared bands. An image-based atmospheric correction (COST method by CHAVEZ, 1996) was applied. An ISODATA unsupervised classification was performed in order to identify different turbidity levels throughout the channel and adjacent areas. The results suggest that suspended sediment transport towards the channel mouth by ebb currents occurs along both flanks. These currents carry suspended sediment into the open sea, generating an ebb tidal delta which tends to rotate in a clockwise direction. Flood currents trigger turbidity mostly over the southern flank of the channel, generating a flood tidal delta with elongated banks extending in the direction of the tidal currents. From the elongated shape of the turbidity plumes, general tidal circulation patterns were identified

    Distribution and morphometry of shallow lakes in a temperate zone (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)

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    We have developed a database of water bodies to characterise and assess the distribution and morphometry of Pampean shallow lakes and reservoirs in a temperate zone (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In the study area, there are over 2000 shallow lakes with a mean area 2. In the last two cases, geomorphology determines the morphometry and location of these shallow lakes. The development of numerous water bodies with areas 2). En los últimos dos casos, la morfometría y la localización de los lagos fue influenciada por la geomorfología. El desarrollo de numerosos cuerpos de agua cuya área media es menor a 1 km2 causó un incremento en el número de cuerpos de agua durante el año húmedo. El área cubierta por agua y la densidad de los lagos fue más baja en la zona de mesetas (situada al oeste del área de estudio), baja en la zona serrana, moderada en el centro del área de estudio y alta en las planicies del sector este del área de estudio

    Dermoscopy of uncommon variants of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

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    Darier-Ferrand dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive fibrohistiocytic tumour with a low metastatic potential.(1) Because of its rarity, slow progression and lack of early clinical clues, the diagnosis of DFSP is often delayed. Classical DFSP clinically appeared like an indurated, irregularly-shaped plaques exhibiting flesh to reddish-brown colour. Some lesions also showed thin teleangectasia on the surface (Fig. 1, a). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    Low-gravity experiments of lightweight flexible heat pipe panels with self-rewetting fluids

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    Abstract. Fluids with a unique surface tension behavior, the so-called "self-rewetting fluids," are considered to be promising working fluids not only in reduced-gravity environments but also in terrestrial applications. Ultralightweight polyimide-based wickless heat pipe panels with flexible, inflatable, and deployable functions were fabricated using self-rewetting fluids. Fundamental operation tests of these panels were conducted under conditions of reduced gravity during parabolic flight. We obtained promising experimental results on the thermal performance of the panels in reduced gravity, although the experimental conditions were not entirely satisfactory

    Cutaneous findings in neurofibromatosis type 1

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    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by major and minor cutaneous findings, whose recognition plays a key role in the early diagnosis of the disease. The disease affects multiple systems and clinical manifestation has a wide range of variability. Symptoms and clinical signs may occur over the lifetime, and the complications are very diverse. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease, no specific treatment has been defined. Multidisciplinary approach is required to provide optimum care for the patients. The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a complete guide of skin findings of NF1. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a complex autosomal dominant disorder associated with germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. NF1 belongs to a class of congenital anomaly syndromes called RASopathies, a group of rare genetic conditions caused by mutations in the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Generally, NF1 patients present with dermatologic manifestations. In this review the main features of café-au-lait macules, freckling, neurofibromas, juvenile xanthogranuloma, nevus anemicus and other cutaneous findings will be discussed
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