277 research outputs found

    Asymptotic geometry of negatively curved manifolds of finite volume

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    We study the asymptotic behaviour of simply connected, Riemannian manifolds XX of strictly negative curvature admitting a non-uniform lattice őď\Gamma. If the quotient manifold XňČ=őď\X\bar X= \Gamma \backslash X is asymptotically 1/41/4-pinched, we prove that őď\Gamma is divergent and UXňČU\bar X has finite Bowen-Margulis measure (which is then ergodic and totally conservative with respect to the geodesic flow); moreover, we show that, in this case, the volume growth of balls B(x,R)B(x,R) in XX is asymptotically equivalent to a purely exponential function c(x)eőīRc(x)e^{\delta R}, where őī\delta is the topological entropy of the geodesic flow of XňČ\bar X. \linebreak This generalizes Margulis' celebrated theorem to negatively curved spaces of finite volume. In contrast, we exhibit examples of lattices őď\Gamma in negatively curved spaces XX (not asymptotically 1/41/4-pinched) where, depending on the critical exponent of the parabolic subgroups and on the finiteness of the Bowen-Margulis measure, the growth function is exponential, lower-exponential or even upper-exponential.Comment: 25 p. This paper replaces arXiv:1503.03971, withdrawn by the authors due to the Theorem 1.1 whose statement is far from the main subject of the paper; for the sake of clearness, this new version concentrates only on the question of volume growth (theorems 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4). Theorem 1.1 of arXiv:1503.03971 is now the subject of another paper (Signed only by 2 authors Sambusetti and Peign\'e) focused on this rigidity problem with a much better presentation of the context and another rigidity resul

    Impact de pollutions ponctuelles sur les phytocénoses des rivières acides à neutres du Limousin (Massif Central, France)

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    L'impact des pollutions ponctuelles sur les phytocénoses aquatiques est étudié autour des rejets de 12 agglomérations dont 9 sont équipées d'une station d'épuration. Un échantillonnage systématique avec segmentation du cours d'eau autour de chaque rejet est réalisé. Sur chaque secteur, des relevés de végétation sont pratiqués au niveau de faciès d'écoulements homogènes dont on caractérise le milieu physique parallèlement à une analyse physicochimique de l'eau.L'ensemble des rejets provoque globalement une élévation de la conductivité, des teneurs en ammonium, nitrates et orthophosphates.Cela ce traduit par la régression de la phytocénose à Callitriche hamulata et Myriophyllum alterniflorum, par le développement de Ranunculus peltatus, Callitriche platycarpa et d'espèces cryptogames telles que Leptodyctium riparium, ou Melosira sp.Une Analyse en Composantes Principales menée sur l'ensemble des données permet d'opposer des phytocénoses propres aux secteurs amonts (Scapania undulata, Chiloscyphus polyanthus) à d'autres situées au niveau de rejets (Callitriche platycarpa, Leptodictyum riparium, Melosira sp.,).Une Analyse Canonique de Correspondances valide le déterminisme de la qualité physicochimique de l'eau sur la végétation. La conductivité, les teneurs en ammonium, nitrates et orthophosphates deviennent prépondérants par rapport aux facteurs du milieu physique classiquement discriminants dans l'installation des phytocénoses dans les rivières limousines.The impact of located pollution on aquatic phytocénoses is studied around 12 cities discharge. Nine of them are fitted out purification plant.The sampling method is based on consecutive segments from upstream to downstream. On each sector, vegetation records are realized in homogeneous water runoff facies, which are characterized by physical factors as well as water value measures.The whole discharge leads globally to an increase of conductivity, ammonium amount, nitrates and orthophosphates. The consequence of that is a decrease of Callitriche hamulata and Myriophyllum alterniflorum phytocénoses, a development of Ranunculus peltatus, Callitriche platycarpa and cryptogams species like Leptodictyum riparium or Melosira sp.A Component Principal Analysis applied on data, distinguishes phytocénoses belonging to upstream sectors (Scapania undulata, Chiloscyphus polyanthus) from the ones of discharges (Callitriche platycarpa, Leptodictyum riparium, Melosira sp.).A Canonical Correspondence Analysis validates the impact of physico-chemical water quality on vegetation. Conductivity, ammonium amount, nitrates and orthophosphates become more preponderant in comparison with physical environments usually discriminant for phytocénoses installation in Limousin rivers

    Kick stability in groups and dynamical systems

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    We consider a general construction of ``kicked systems''. Let G be a group of measure preserving transformations of a probability space. Given its one-parameter/cyclic subgroup (the flow), and any sequence of elements (the kicks) we define the kicked dynamics on the space by alternately flowing with given period, then applying a kick. Our main finding is the following stability phenomenon: the kicked system often inherits recurrence properties of the original flow. We present three main examples. 1) G is the torus. We show that for generic linear flows, and any sequence of kicks, the trajectories of the kicked system are uniformly distributed for almost all periods. 2) G is a discrete subgroup of PSL(2,R) acting on the unit tangent bundle of a Riemann surface. The flow is generated by a single element of G, and we take any bounded sequence of elements of G as our kicks. We prove that the kicked system is mixing for all sufficiently large periods if and only if the generator is of infinite order and is not conjugate to its inverse in G. 3) G is the group of Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms of a closed symplectic manifold. We assume that the flow is rapidly growing in the sense of Hofer's norm, and the kicks are bounded. We prove that for a positive proportion of the periods the kicked system inherits a kind of energy conservation law and is thus superrecurrent. We use tools of geometric group theory and symplectic topology.Comment: Latex, 40 pages, revised versio

    Grating formation in step flow heterogeneous growth and wavelength selection induced by confinement

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    Based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that modulated wires and island gratings can be formed at vicinal surfaces. The modulation (grating) wavelength along the steps can be tailored by external conditions (coverage and temperature) and intrinsic surface properties (diffusion, terrace width) via a scaling law. Above 220 K a thermodynamic saturation value for the wavelength occurs, which depends only on the terrace width. This morphological behavior can be understood in terms of nucleation arguments applied to heteroepitaxial growth of Ag on stepped Pt(111) surfaces. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    On the growth of nonuniform lattices in pinched negatively curved manifolds

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    We study the relation between the exponential growth rate of volume in a pinched negatively curved manifold and the critical exponent of its lattices. These objects have a long and interesting story and are closely related to the geometry and the dynamical properties of the geodesic flow of the manifold

    A search for late-type supergiants in the inner regions of the Milky Way

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    We present the results of a narrow-band infrared imaging survey of a narrow strip (12' wide) around the galactic equator between 6 deg and 21 deg of galactic longitude aimed at detecting field stars with strong CO absorption, mainly late-type giants and supergiants. Our observations include follow-up low resolution spectroscopy (R = 980) of 191 selected candidates in the H and K bands. Most of these objects have photometric and spectroscopic characteristics consistent with them being red giants, and some display broad, strong absorption wings due to water vapor absorption between the H and K bands. We also identify in our sample 18 good supergiant candidates characterized by their lack of noticeable water absorption, strong CO bands in the H and K windows, and HK_S photometry suggestive of high intrinsic luminosity and extinctions reaching up to A_V ~40 mag. Another 9 additional candidates share the same features except for weak H2O absorption, which is also observed among some M supergiants in the solar neighbourhood. Interesting differences are noticed when comparing our stars to a local sample of late-type giants and supergiants, as well as to a sample of red giants in globular clusters of moderately subsolar metallicity and to a sample of bulge stars. (...) We propose that the systematic spectroscopic differences of our inner Galaxy stars are due to their higher metallicities that cause deeper mixing in their mantles, resulting in lower surface abundances of C and O and higher abundances of CN, which contribute to the strength of the CaI and NaI features at low resolution. Our results stress the limitations of using local stars as templates for the study of composite cool stellar populations such as central starbursts in galaxies (Abridged).Comment: 21 pages (including figures), A&A accepte

    The long Galactic bar as seen by UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey

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    Over the last decade there have been a series of results supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a long thin bar in the Milky Way with a half-length of 4.5 kpc and a position angle of around 45 deg. This is apparently a very different structure from the triaxial bulge of the Galaxy, which is thicker and shorter and dominates the star counts at |l|<10 deg. In this paper, we analyse the stellar distribution in the inner Galaxy to see if there is clear evidence for two triaxial or bar-like structures in the Milky Way. By using the red-clump population as a tracer of Galactic structure, we determine the apparent morphology of the inner Galaxy. Deeper and higher spatial resolution NIR photometry from the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey allows us to use in-plane data even at the innermost Galactic longitudes, a region where the source confusion is a dominant effect that makes it impossible to use other NIR databases such as 2MASS or TCS-CAIN. We show that results previously obtained with using the red-clump giants are confirmed with the in-plane data from UKIDSS GPS. There are two different structures coexisting in the inner Galactic plane: one with a position angle of 23.60+-2.19 deg that can be traced from the Galactic Centre up to l=10 deg (the Galactic bulge), and other with a larger position angle of 42.44+-2.14 deg, that ends around l=28 deg (the long Galactic bar).Comment: (8 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

    The EROS2 search for microlensing events towards the spiral arms: the complete seven season results

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    The EROS-2 project has been designed to search for microlensing events towards any dense stellar field. The densest parts of the Galactic spiral arms have been monitored to maximize the microlensing signal expected from the stars of the Galactic disk and bulge. 12.9 million stars have been monitored during 7 seasons towards 4 directions in the Galactic plane, away from the Galactic center. A total of 27 microlensing event candidates have been found. Estimates of the optical depths from the 22 best events are provided. A first order interpretation shows that simple Galactic models with a standard disk and an elongated bulge are in agreement with our observations. We find that the average microlensing optical depth towards the complete EROS-cataloged stars of the spiral arms is ŌĄňČ=0.51¬Ī.13√ó10‚ąí6\bar{\tau} =0.51\pm .13\times 10^{-6}, a number that is stable when the selection criteria are moderately varied. As the EROS catalog is almost complete up to IC=18.5I_C=18.5, the optical depth estimated for the sub-sample of bright target stars with IC<18.5I_C<18.5 (ŌĄňČ=0.39¬Ī>.11√ó10‚ąí6\bar{\tau}=0.39\pm >.11\times 10^{-6}) is easier to interpret. The set of microlensing events that we have observed is consistent with a simple Galactic model. A more precise interpretation would require either a better knowledge of the distance distribution of the target stars, or a simulation based on a Galactic model. For this purpose, we define and discuss the concept of optical depth for a given catalog or for a limiting magnitude.Comment: 22 pages submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysic

    MOB1 Mediated Phospho-recognition in the Core Mammalian Hippo Pathway.

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    The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway regulates organ size and tissue homoeostasis in response to diverse signaling inputs. The core of the pathway consists of a short kinase cascade: MST1 and MST2 phosphorylate and activate LATS1 and LATS2, which in turn phosphorylate and inactivate key transcriptional coactivators, YAP1 and TAZ (gene WWTR1). The MOB1 adapter protein regulates both phosphorylation reactions firstly by concurrently binding to the upstream MST and downstream LATS kinases to enable the trans phosphorylation reaction, and secondly by allosterically activating the catalytic function of LATS1 and LATS2 to directly stimulate phosphorylation of YAP and TAZ. Studies of yeast Mob1 and human MOB1 revealed that the ability to recognize phosphopeptide sequences in their interactors, Nud1 and MST2 respectively, was critical to their roles in regulating the Mitotic Exit Network in yeast and the Hippo pathway in metazoans. However, the underlying rules of phosphopeptide recognition by human MOB1, the implications of binding specificity for Hippo pathway signaling, and the generality of phosphopeptide binding function to other human MOB family members remained elusive.Employing proteomics, peptide arrays and biochemical analyses, we systematically examine the phosphopeptide binding specificity of MOB1 and find it to be highly complementary to the substrate phosphorylation specificity of MST1 and MST2. We demonstrate that autophosphorylation of MST1 and MST2 on several threonine residues provides multiple MOB1 binding sites with varying binding affinities which in turn contribute to a redundancy of MST1-MOB1 protein interactions in cells. The crystal structures of MOB1A in complex with two favored phosphopeptide sites in MST1 allow for a full description of the MOB1A phosphopeptide-binding consensus. Lastly, we show that the phosphopeptide binding properties of MOB1A are conserved in all but one of the seven MOB family members in humans, thus providing a starting point for uncovering their elusive cellular functions
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