15 research outputs found

    What does the UK Police National Database tell us about the future of police intelligence?

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    Developments in technology are transforming society, creating more opportunities for offenders and complicating the policing landscape. The challenge for law enforcement is to identify criminal patterns from an offender’s electronic traces and to provide actionable intelligence. However, these traces are held by diverse police forces and are rarely connected. In 2011, to overcome this challenge, the Police National Database (PND) was launched to provide a national intelligence overview from local data. This study examines the database, using a mixed-methods approach. Descriptive and inferential analyses of PND usage data highlight that different forces use the PND, and its various capabilities, with different levels of frequency. Thematic analyses of interviews and focus groups with PND users identified: specific examples of PND use, as well as its perceived strengths, perceived deficiencies, and future considerations. Implications for policing practice are discussed

    Cooperative actors in domestic abuse and their association with prosecution: implications for the criminal justice system

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    Suggestions to increase prosecution rates in domestic abuse cases often focus on improving victim cooperation and evidence gathering. This study explores the impact of persons involved in abuse investigations by modelling five variables (victim cooperation; witness cooperation; presence of children; suspect admission; and presence of physical evidence) across 540 cases of domestic abuse. The presence of physical evidence, as well as victim and witness cooperation, all increased the likelihood of a charge against the suspect. However, suspect confession often resulted in a police caution, meaning no successful charge. The implications of these findings to improve investigation and prosecution are discussed

    Understanding how law enforcement agencies share information in an intelligence-led environment: How operational context influences different approaches

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    PurposeThe importance of multi-agency information sharing is recognised as central to tackling crime and disorder in an intelligence-driven environment. However, whilst technology can facilitate and enhance this process, barriers to effective agency information exchange are consistently reported. This paper aims to categorise how information sharing takes place in a law enforcement operational setting and whether there is scope to improve the process.Design/methodology/approachThere were two stages to the method; firstly, a select group of practitioners with intelligence-related experience (n = 28) were interviewed to identify the most common approaches to operational information sharing. This generated a categorisation model, which was tested with a larger group of practitioners (n = 73). A mixed-methods approach was adopted.FindingsThe research found consensus surrounding four different approaches to information sharing, labelled as: (1) inform and request, (2) meet and share, (3) customised database and (4) integrated systems. These are used at various levels of frequency, dependent on the operational context.Originality/valueThis research provides original evidence-based research to show law enforcement practitioners vary in the way they share information. By demystifying and categorising the process, it provides understanding for practitioners, policymakers and researchers, allowing barriers to be more readily tackled in a much more cost-effective manner

    Assessing the appetite for Evidence Based Policing: A UK based study

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    Whilst Evidence Based Policing (EBP) has emerged as a police approach in Europe, Australasia and the Americas, its level of implementation has received little scrutiny. In this study, a questionnaire completed by 625 police staff, employed by a major UK police force, examines how police employees both view and use evidence based practice. The study found that whilst the term EBP was widely recognized, its use was less apparent. The findings specifically distinguished lower ranked officers from senior police officers, as well as discriminating between warranted (sworn) officers and non-warranted (unsworn) civilian staff. It showed that lower ranking officers (Constables) were more likely to value experience over academic evidence and collaboration, whilst senior ranks were much more likely to embrace EBP principles. Further, civilian staff were less likely to view new ideas as a ‘fad’ and be more open to research experimentation and evaluation, albeit they had fewer internal avenues to pursue professional development. In summary, it is argued that to develop an environment where EBP can thrive, explicit implementation plans which consider such issues as organizational culture, are helpful

    Diverting young men from gangs: a qualitative evaluation

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    Purpose: Serious Organised Crime (SOC) costs the UK billions of pounds every year and is associated with significant negative health, social and wellbeing outcomes. This study aims to evaluate whether young people can be diverted from involvement in SOC using preventive intervention approaches. Design: A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted on data collected from semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved in a six-month intervention, which specifically aimed to divert ‘at risk’ young people away from SOC involvement. Findings: Themes arising from the analysis are: (i) risk and vulnerability factors associated with young people involved in organised crime; (ii) what worked well during this intervention; (iii) what outcomes, both hard and soft, were generated; as well as (iv) the specific challenges to the success of preventive programmes. Implications: Overall, the study highlights the problematic nature of diverting ‘at risk’ youths from SOC and provides recommendations for future preventive intervention work in the field of SOC. Specifically, it suggests that longer term interventions, targeted at younger children, may generate better behavioural outcomes if they focus on building trusting relationships with credible support workers (i.e. have lived experience of SOC). Originality: With a growing body of evidence suggesting that young people are being increasingly exploited for organised criminal purposes, an approach which prevents involvement in SOC makes theoretical and economic sense. However, little research has empirically tested its utility in practice. This study seeks to address this gap

    Developments in UK police wellbeing: A review of blue light wellbeing frameworks

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    Policing demands are widely acknowledged to negatively impact on the physical and mental health of police officers and staff. Research has documented the need for greater insight into the stressors and trauma that impact police officers, with a current national drive towards enhancing the police wellbeing agenda: namely, Oscar Kilo and the National Wellbeing Service. To understand the current wellbeing strategies in place, 34 Blue Light Wellbeing Frameworks were analysed. A mixed methods approach was adopted: quantitative data was descriptively examined, with thematic analyses employed to explore the qualitative data. Findings from the review highlight developments in police wellbeing, as well as areas for future development

    Organisational and individual perspectives of police wellbeing in England and Wales

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    Individual and organisational factors have been identified as influencing personal wellbeing, with an emphasis placed on the organisation and management to support their staff. Whilst various policies, interventions and campaigns are in place at national and local level, it is unclear how well individual and organisational perspectives of wellbeing are aligned. This study seeks to address this through the analysis of secondary data provided by Oscar Kilo in 2018: Blue Light Wellbeing Frameworks (organisational perspective) and Human Resources policy review survey data (individual perspective). Whilst findings indicate positive steps to enhancing police wellbeing, a disconnect between the organisation and employees was apparent

    Eurovision 2023: Exploring Liverpool's multi-agency approach to a large-scale event

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    In May 2023, Liverpool hosted the Eurovision Song Contest on behalf of Ukraine, involving 37 competing nations. With over 12,000 accredited staff involved in the planning and delivery of Eurovision, it is the largest and most complex multi-agency event that Liverpool has ever hosted. The organisations involved included Culture Liverpool, Merseyside Police, Liverpool City Council, North West Ambulance Service, Liverpool One, BBC, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, Camp and Furnace, Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service, and many more. This presented an exciting opportunity to explore multi-agency working for a major live event. The research will identify the key themes associated with a multi-agency approach, around relationship building, consistency, longevity, and trust. It will also investigate the ways in which multi-agency information sharing takes place in the preparation and delivery of a large-scale live event, informing a UK Research and Innovation Future Leaders Fellowship on law enforcement information exchange. To understand how agencies work together and share information for Eurovision 2023, the following data is collected: i.) field observations during multi-agency meetings, the multi-agency tabletop exercise, and the live events (i.e. opening ceremony, semi-finals, final); ii.) policy documents; iii.) post-event online surveys; and iv.) post-event semi-structured interviews. Participants include practitioners from a range of the organisations involved. Quantitative (descriptives) and qualitative (content, thematic) analyses will be conducted. As a ‘work-in-progress’, an overview of the research and headline findings will be presented

    Fostering relations: first sex and marital timings for children raised by kin and non-kin carers

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    Kinship fostering is generally preferred to non-kin fostering by policy makers in the U.S. and elsewhere. Researchers and policy makers alike tend to provide several proximate reasons for why this may be, generally neglecting an ultimate evolutionary framework. However, kin selection theory predicts that in the absence of genetically related parents, care from kin will result in the most similar life history outcomes. In low-fertility settings, parents typically favour increased investment in embodied capital and thus delayed reproductive life history strategy. Using archival data from the original Kinsey survey, collected in the U.S. from 1938 to 1963, we used survival analyses to compare the effects of living with kin and non-kin fosterers in childhood on timings of first sex and marriage. Our results support a kin selection hypothesis showing that while fostered children have accelerated life histories compared to children from "intact families", kin fosterers buffer children from early sexual and reproductive behaviors, compared to children cared for by non-kin. © 2014 The Authors

    Chronic Infection Drives Expression of the Inhibitory Receptor CD200R, and Its Ligand CD200, by Mouse and Human CD4 T Cells

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    Certain parasites have evolved to evade the immune response and establish chronic infections that may persist for many years. T cell responses in these conditions become muted despite ongoing infection. Upregulation of surface receptors with inhibitory properties provides an immune cell-intrinsic mechanism that, under conditions of chronic infection, regulates immune responses and limits cellular activation and associated pathology. The negative regulator, CD200 receptor, and its ligand, CD200, have been shown to regulate macrophage activation and reduce pathology following infection. We show that CD4 T cells also increase expression of inhibitory CD200 receptors (CD200R) in response to chronic infection. CD200R was upregulated on murine effector T cells in response to infection with bacterial, Salmonella enterica, or helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, pathogens that respectively drive predominant Th1- or Th2-responses. In vitro chronic and prolonged stimuli were required for the sustained upregulation of CD200R, and its expression coincided with loss of multifunctional potential in T effector cells during infection. Importantly, we show an association between IL-4 production and CD200R expression on T effector cells from humans infected with Schistosoma haematobium that correlated effectively with egg burden and, thus infection intensity. Our results indicate a role of CD200R:CD200 in T cell responses to helminths which has diagnostic and prognostic relevance as a marker of infection for chronic schistosomiasis in mouse and man
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