240 research outputs found

    UNESCO World Heritage: Striving for Utopia through Universal Value

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    With this thesis, I take a critical look at the UNESCO World Heritage Convention and its mission to foster international unity through the creation of World Heritage Sites. The World Heritage Convention was created with good intentions, but in attempting to actualize its original objectives, the Convention has strayed from its goals. By looking at the events leading up to the creation of the World Heritage Convention, the Convention itself, and the various measures carried out by the Convention since its creation, it is clear that the UNESCO World Heritage Convention still has work to do to achieve its utopian goals. The International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia in the 1960s became the cornerstone of the Convention’s activities, but the international cooperation and sense of community that occurred during this Campaign should have been carried through into the Convention’s activities afterward. The Convention has adopted several changes intended to better its operations and definition of “universal value,” but there is still much to be desired. After reviewing the opinions of several scholars on how to make the Convention more inclusive and universal, I suggest several of my own solutions that I believe will create a positive impact on the World Heritage Convention and help return it to its original goals

    Bounding the Practical Error of Path Loss Models

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    We seek to provide practical lower bounds on the prediction accuracy of path loss models. We describe and implement 30 propagation models of varying popularity that have been proposed over the last 70 years. Our analysis is performed using a large corpus of measurements collected on production networks operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM, 5.8 GHz UNII, and 900 MHz ISM bands in a diverse set of rural and urban environments. We find that the landscape of path loss models is precarious: typical best-case performance accuracy of these models is on the order of 12–15 dB root mean square error (RMSE) and in practice it can be much worse. Models that can be tuned with measurements and explicit data fitting approaches enable a reduction in RMSE to 8-9 dB. These bounds on modeling error appear to be relatively constant, even in differing environments and at differing frequencies. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a few well-accepted and well-performing standard models in scenarios where a priori predictions are needed and argue for the use of well-validated, measurement-driven methods whenever possible
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