5,011 research outputs found

### Photon number variance in isolated cavities

We consider a strictly isolated single-mode optical cavity resonating at
angular frequency omega containing atoms whose one-electron level energies are
supposed to be: hbar*omega, 2*hbar*omega,...B*hbar\omega, and m photons. If
initially the atoms are in their highest energy state and m=0, we find that at
equilibrium: variance(m)/mean(m)=(B+1)/6, indicating that the internal field
statistics is sub-Poissonian if the number of atomic levels B does not exceed
4. Remarkably, this result does not depend on the number of atoms, nor on the
number of electrons that each atom incorporates. Our result has application to
the statistics of the light emitted by pulsed lasers and nuclear magnetic
resonance. On the mathematical side, the result is based on the restricted
partitions of integers.Comment: 4 pages, to be submitted to Journal of Physics

### Generating connected acyclic digraphs uniformly at random

We describe a simple algorithm based on a Markov chain process to generate
simply connected acyclic directed graphs over a fixed set of vertices. This
algorithm is an extension of a previous one, designed to generate acyclic
digraphs, non necessarily connected.Comment: 6 page

### On Classical Ideal Gases

The ideal gas laws are derived from the democritian concept of corpuscles
moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are
independent of the laws of motion aside from the law of energy conservation. A
single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath and submitted to a $z$ and
$t$-invariant force $-w$ is considered, in which case corpuscle
distinguishability is irrelevant. The non-relativistic approximation is made
only in examples. Some of the end results are known but the method appears to
be novel. The mathematics being elementary the present paper should facilitate
the understanding of the ideal-gas law and more generally of classical
thermodynamics. It supplements importantly a previously published paper: The
stability of ideal gases is proven from the expressions obtained for the force
exerted by the corpuscle on the two end pistons of a cylinder, and the internal
energy. We evaluate the entropy increase that occurs when the wall separating
two cylinders is removed and show that the entropy remains the same when the
separation is restored. The entropy increment may be defined at the ratio of
heat entering into the system and temperature when the number of corpuscles (0
or 1) is fixed. In general the entropy is defined as the average value of
$\ln(p)$ where $p$ denotes the probability of a given state. Generalization to
$z$-dependent weights, or equivalently to arbitrary static potentials, is made.Comment: Generalization of previous versions to questions of stabilit

### Comment on: "Sadi Carnot on Carnot's theorem"

Carnot established in 1824 that the efficiency $\eta_{C}$ of reversible
engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature $T_{hot}$ and a
cold bath at temperature $T_{cold}$ is equal to $1-T_{cold}/T_{hot}$. Carnot
particularly considered air as a working fluid and small bath-temperature
differences. Plugging into Carnot's expression modern experimental values,
exact agreement with modern Thermodynamics is found. However, in a recently
published paper ["Sadi Carnot on Carnot's theorem", \textit{Am. J. Phys.}
\textbf{70}(1), 42-47, 2002], Guemez and others consider a "modified cycle"
involving two isobars that they mistakenly attribute to Carnot. They calculate
an efficiency considerably lower than $\eta_{C}$ and suggest that Carnot made
compensating errors. Our contention is that the Carnot theory is, to the
contrary, perfectly accurate.Comment: Submitted to American Journal of Physic

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