32 research outputs found

    Effects of grain size distribution on the initial strain shear modulus of calcareous sand

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    The soil’s small strain shear modulus, Gmax or G0, is applied in dynamic behavior analyses and is correlated to other soil properties (density and void ratio) for predicting soil dynamic behavior under seismic loadings such as earthquakes, machinery or traffic vibrations. However, for calcareous sands, selecting representative samples for the field conditions is difficult; therefore, almost all measured soil parameters (post-seismic properties) do not reflect exactly the soil state before seismic loading. In some cases of dynamic loading, a change in grain size distribution (GSD) of soils, especially for calcareous sands might occur. Moreover, many of these sand types behave differently from silica sands owing to their mineralogy, particle characterization, soil skeleton, and the continuous changing of particle size. For this reason, a series of isotropic consolidation tests in ranges of confining pressure from 25 to 300 kPa as well as bender element measurements on a calcareous sand and on a reference silica sand were performed in this study. The effects of differences in gradation and in the type of material on the soil’s small strain shear modulus, Gmax, are discussed

    Genome-wide association mapping of leaf mass traits in a Vietnamese rice landrace panel

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    Leaf traits are often strongly correlated with yield, which poses a major challenge in rice breeding. In the present study, using a panel of Vietnamese rice landraces genotyped with 21,623 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for several leaf traits during the vegetative stage. Vietnamese landraces are often poorly represented in panels used for GWAS, even though they are adapted to contrasting agrosystems and can contain original, valuable genetic determinants. A panel of 180 rice varieties was grown in pots for four weeks with three replicates under nethouse conditions. Different leaf traits were measured on the second fully expanded leaf of the main tiller, which often plays a major role in determining the photosynthetic capacity of the plant. The leaf fresh weight, turgid weight and dry weight were measured; then, from these measurements, the relative tissue weight and leaf dry matter percentage were computed. The leaf dry matter percentage can be considered a proxy for the photosynthetic efficiency per unit leaf area, which contributes to yield. By a GWAS, thirteen QTLs associated with these leaf traits were identified. Eleven QTLs were identified for fresh weight, eleven for turgid weight, one for dry weight, one for relative tissue weight and one for leaf dry matter percentage. Eleven QTLs presented associations with several traits, suggesting that these traits share common genetic determinants, while one QTL was specific to leaf dry matter percentage and one QTL was specific to relative tissue weight. Interestingly, some of these QTLs colocalize with leaf- or yield-related QTLs previously identified using other material. Several genes within these QTLs with a known function in leaf development or physiology are reviewed

    In vitro bioactivities of Codonopsis javanica root extract from Kon Tum province, Vietnam

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    Dangshen Codonopsis javanica exhibits invaluable medicinal properties in herbal remedies; however, there has currently not been much specific analysis of the phytochemicals and bioactivities of this plant. The root ethanol extract of C. javanica contains substances such as saponins, phenolic acids, terpenoids, and alkaloids. It displays an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus with the IC50 values of 150, 100, 150, and 90 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the root extract was also observed with an IC50 value of 46.8 ± 6.8 μg/mL. Furthermore, the extract exhibits activity on human cancer cell lines HepG2 (IC50 = 83.6 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 95.3 ± 2.3 μg/mL). Hence, this study provides the basic data for further research on the bioactivities of natural compounds of Dangshen C. javanica for the first time

    Deficient Mismatch Repair Proteins in Gastric Mixed Neuroendocrine Non-Neuroendocrine Neoplasm: A Rare Case Report

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    Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN) is a rare type of gastric carcinoma with controversial diagnosis and treatment. Recent data implies that deficiency mismatch repair proteins inducing microsatellite instability are considered one of the potential drivers of this disease. Hence, we report a stomach MiNEN with MMR protein loss. An admitted 60-year-old woman complained of epigastric pain. The pathological analysis of the gastro-endoscopic biopsy specimen revealed gastric adenocarcinoma. The radiological staging was cT3N1M0; therefore, she received D2 distal gastrectomy. Suspecting neuroendocrine component admix with adenocarcinoma part on the resected specimen microscopy, applying biomarkers including AE 1/3, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A to confirm the diagnosis of MiNEN. The neuroendocrine part was classified as neuroendocrine tumor grade 2 with Ki 67 at 16.5%. To further understand the molecular characterization of this disease, we evaluated mismatch protein expression by staining MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 antibodies. Interestingly, both components lost MLH1 and PMS2 proteins. Her radical surgery followed oxaliplatin/capecitabine adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient is still well after eight cycles of chemotherapy. dMMR gastric MiNENs and dMMR gastric cancer share many clinical and genetic characteristics. Further studies are necessary to survey the role of dMMR in the prognosis and treatment of this entity

    Using Patch Testing to Improve Therapeutic Outcome in the Treatment of Hand Eczema in Vietnamese Patients

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    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common chronic and relapsing skin disease with various clinical features. Hand eczema aetiology can be allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), atopic dermatitis (AD) and unknown or combination causes. If the causative agents are not detected treatment of hand eczema will be a failure. A patch test can be useful to detect causative agents in suspected allergic contact hand eczema. Then patients will avoid contacting them. This results in the improvement of hand eczema. In Vietnam, patch test has not been used before, so we conduct this study. AIM: To identify causative allergens by using patch test with 28 standard allergens in consecutive patients. METHODS: A group of 300 HE patients from the National Hospital of Dermatology and Venereology (NHDV) in Vietnam were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 4 groups-ACD, ICD, AD and unknown aetiology. The patient was patch tested with 28 standard allergens to identify the causative agents. RESULTS: Among the 300 HE enrolled patients, ACD accounted for 72.7%, AD and ICD had the same rate of 12.7%. 39.3% of the patients had a positive patch test. Reaction to nickel sulfate was the most common (10.3%), followed by potassium dichromate (9.7%), cobalt (4%) and fragrance mix (3.1%). About one-third of the cases had relevant clinical reactions correlated with the contact agents and clinical history. Males reacted to cement, thiuram mix and formaldehyde more than females, while females reacted to a nickel more than males. CONCLUSIONS: Hand eczema has variable clinical features and diverse aetiology. ACD is an important cause of hand eczema that can be managed with a patch test to detect causative allergens. Nearly 40% of HE cases had positive patch test. Relevant patch test reactions were seen in one-third of the patients. We propose using patch test detect causative agents in suspected allergic contact hand eczema. Then patients will avoid contacting them. This results in the improvement of hand eczema

    A Bibliometric Analysis of the Global Research Trend in Child Maltreatment

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    Child maltreatment remains a major health threat globally that requires the understanding of socioeconomic and cultural contexts to craft effective interventions. However, little is known about research agendas globally and the development of knowledge-producing networks in this field of study. This study aims to explore the bibliometric overview on child maltreatment publications to understand their growth from 1916 to 2018. Data from the Web of Science Core Collection were collected in May 2018. Only research articles and reviews written in the English language were included, with no restrictions by publication date. We analyzed publication years, number of papers, journals, authors, keywords and countries, and presented the countries collaboration and co-occurrence keywords analysis. From 1916 to 2018, 47, 090 papers (53.0% in 2010–2018) were published in 9442 journals. Child Abuse & Neglect (2576 papers; 5.5%); Children and Youth Services Review (1130 papers; 2.4%) and Pediatrics (793 papers, 1.7%) published the most papers. The most common research areas were Psychology (16, 049 papers, 34.1%), Family Studies (8225 papers, 17.5%), and Social Work (7367 papers, 15.6%). Among 192 countries with research publications, the most prolific countries were the United States (26, 367 papers), England (4676 papers), Canada (3282 papers) and Australia (2664 papers). We identified 17 authors who had more than 60 scientific items. The most cited papers (with at least 600 citations) were published in 29 journals, headed by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) (7 papers) and the Lancet (5 papers). This overview of global research in child maltreatment indicated an increasing trend in this topic, with the world’s leading centers located in the Western countries led by the United States. We called for interdisciplinary research approaches to evaluating and intervening on child maltreatment, with a focus on low-middle income countries (LMICs) settings and specific contexts

    Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional outcome after acute stroke (AFFINITY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Trials of fluoxetine for recovery after stroke report conflicting results. The Assessment oF FluoxetINe In sTroke recoverY (AFFINITY) trial aimed to show if daily oral fluoxetine for 6 months after stroke improves functional outcome in an ethnically diverse population. Methods AFFINITY was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in 43 hospital stroke units in Australia (n=29), New Zealand (four), and Vietnam (ten). Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke in the previous 2–15 days, brain imaging consistent with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, and a persisting neurological deficit that produced a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 1 or more. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via a web-based system using a minimisation algorithm to once daily, oral fluoxetine 20 mg capsules or matching placebo for 6 months. Patients, carers, investigators, and outcome assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was functional status, measured by the mRS, at 6 months. The primary analysis was an ordinal logistic regression of the mRS at 6 months, adjusted for minimisation variables. Primary and safety analyses were done according to the patient's treatment allocation. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000774921. Findings Between Jan 11, 2013, and June 30, 2019, 1280 patients were recruited in Australia (n=532), New Zealand (n=42), and Vietnam (n=706), of whom 642 were randomly assigned to fluoxetine and 638 were randomly assigned to placebo. Mean duration of trial treatment was 167 days (SD 48·1). At 6 months, mRS data were available in 624 (97%) patients in the fluoxetine group and 632 (99%) in the placebo group. The distribution of mRS categories was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (adjusted common odds ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·76–1·15; p=0·53). Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the fluoxetine group had more falls (20 [3%] vs seven [1%]; p=0·018), bone fractures (19 [3%] vs six [1%]; p=0·014), and epileptic seizures (ten [2%] vs two [<1%]; p=0·038) at 6 months. Interpretation Oral fluoxetine 20 mg daily for 6 months after acute stroke did not improve functional outcome and increased the risk of falls, bone fractures, and epileptic seizures. These results do not support the use of fluoxetine to improve functional outcome after stroke

    Effects of particle characteristics on the behavior of calcareous sand

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    De karakteristieken van de gronddeeltjes zoals de mineralogie, vorm en grootte hebben een belangrijke invloed op het mechanische gedrag van grond. Dit doctoraatsonderzoek bespreekt de resultaten van 3D meetproeven, van directe schuifproeven en van triaxiaalproeven met bender element metingen op kalkhoudende gronddeeltjes om het spannings-vervormingsgedrag van kalkhoudend zand te bepalen. Het eerste deel van het onderzoek beschrijft het ontwerp en de constructie van de testapparatuur voor de experimenten. Vervolgens concludeert de studie op basis van de resultaten van de 3D analyse dat de deeltjes van het kalkhoudende zand minder bolvormig zijn dan die van het siliciumdioxidezand. De resultaten van directe schuifproeven tonen aan dat de vorm en samenstelling van de korrels de belangrijkste factoren zijn die de verschillen in afschuifgedrag tussen het kalkhoudende zand en het siliciumdioxidezand veroorzaken. Uiteindelijk worden op basis van bender elementmetingen voor het kalkzand correlaties voor de maximale glijdingsmodulus voorgesteld en wordt het effect van de korreleigenschappen op het verband tussen cyclische weerstandsratio (CRR) en schuifgolfsnelheid (Vs1) onderzocht. De cyclische testresultaten tonen aan dat hoewel het kalkhoudende zand een hoger poriëngetal heeft, het een veel hogere cyclische weerstand heeft dan het siliciumdioxidezand

    Response of unsaturated soil to cyclic loading and rainwater infiltration

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    This paper presents the response of unsaturated sand to cyclic loading followed by water infiltration to study possible slope failures in earthquake areas. Measurement of shear modulus (Gmax) and Young’s modulus (E) are included and considered as the key parameters to assess the dynamic behavior of the soils. The cyclic triaxial tests and dynamic measurements were carried out on Edosaki sand, a silica sand taken from a natural slope in Chiba prefecture in Japan. The specimens were first consolidated in anisotropic condition with a principal stress ratio (K = 2), and then cyclically loaded under un-drained conditions. After cyclic loading, water infiltration was applied to the specimens until failure after different periods of waiting time. During the tests, the elastic wave velocities were continuously measured. Test results clearly show the variation of stiffness during cyclic loading and infiltration attributed to changes in relative density and variation of the suction pressure. Test results also confirm that there is a possible threshold value for the cyclic amplitude, depending on the relative density of the soil material, causing a rearrangement of the soil skeleton giving rise to higher failure resistance during water infiltration after reconsolidation. In short, it is very useful to monitor the stiffness and pore water pressure in a slope after an earthquake in areas with high and frequent rainfall
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