18 research outputs found

    US financial crisis impact on Asian economies : does “decoupling” theory hold : the case of Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

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    Until recently, many investors believed in decoupling theory which says that emerging countries can be resilient from the weakening of US economy and keep stable growths. In 2007, international investors observed a rise on stock markets of some emerging countries when stock price on developed markets in the US or the UK dropped dramatically. Meanwhile, they also observed prosperous economic growth in these emerging markets. This trend supported decoupling theory’s proponents who argue that when emerging stock markets move against a slump on developed markets as US or UK, the economy of these countries will also grow healthily. Since this argument is on discussion, the paper plans to find out a plausible answer for the question: if decoupling theory holds for stock market of emerging countries, will it also hold for their economies. The paper made data research on US market in relation with three other export-dependent Asian markets – Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam and will discuss two problems: (1) how is co-movement of Asian and the US stock markets from 2007 to 2009, and (2) how the economy of these markets responds in the according year. The paper expects to find that stock markets in emerging Asian countries are decoupled from US stock market and their economies also move independently. Data showed that in 2007, there was decoupling effect between Singapore, Thailand and the US. However, from October 2008 until March 2009, stock markets of these countries tracked the movement of US market quite closely. At the same time, their macro economic indicators were on downward trend. In these Southeast Asian countries, decoupling theory just holds for a short period when world economy is in good condition and we could not find certain sign whether it will hold again in the future

    Awareness and preparedness of healthcare workers against the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey across 57 countries.

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    BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, there have been concerns related to the preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs). This study aimed to describe the level of awareness and preparedness of hospital HCWs at the time of the first wave. METHODS: This multinational, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted among hospital HCWs from February to May 2020. We used a hierarchical logistic regression multivariate analysis to adjust the influence of variables based on awareness and preparedness. We then used association rule mining to identify relationships between HCW confidence in handling suspected COVID-19 patients and prior COVID-19 case-management training. RESULTS: We surveyed 24,653 HCWs from 371 hospitals across 57 countries and received 17,302 responses from 70.2% HCWs overall. The median COVID-19 preparedness score was 11.0 (interquartile range [IQR] = 6.0-14.0) and the median awareness score was 29.6 (IQR = 26.6-32.6). HCWs at COVID-19 designated facilities with previous outbreak experience, or HCWs who were trained for dealing with the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, had significantly higher levels of preparedness and awareness (p<0.001). Association rule mining suggests that nurses and doctors who had a 'great-extent-of-confidence' in handling suspected COVID-19 patients had participated in COVID-19 training courses. Male participants (mean difference = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.46; p<0.001) and nurses (mean difference = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.81; p<0.001) had higher preparedness scores compared to women participants and doctors. INTERPRETATION: There was an unsurprising high level of awareness and preparedness among HCWs who participated in COVID-19 training courses. However, disparity existed along the lines of gender and type of HCW. It is unknown whether the difference in COVID-19 preparedness that we detected early in the pandemic may have translated into disproportionate SARS-CoV-2 burden of disease by gender or HCW type

    Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional outcome after acute stroke (AFFINITY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Trials of fluoxetine for recovery after stroke report conflicting results. The Assessment oF FluoxetINe In sTroke recoverY (AFFINITY) trial aimed to show if daily oral fluoxetine for 6 months after stroke improves functional outcome in an ethnically diverse population. Methods AFFINITY was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in 43 hospital stroke units in Australia (n=29), New Zealand (four), and Vietnam (ten). Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke in the previous 2–15 days, brain imaging consistent with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, and a persisting neurological deficit that produced a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 1 or more. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via a web-based system using a minimisation algorithm to once daily, oral fluoxetine 20 mg capsules or matching placebo for 6 months. Patients, carers, investigators, and outcome assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was functional status, measured by the mRS, at 6 months. The primary analysis was an ordinal logistic regression of the mRS at 6 months, adjusted for minimisation variables. Primary and safety analyses were done according to the patient's treatment allocation. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000774921. Findings Between Jan 11, 2013, and June 30, 2019, 1280 patients were recruited in Australia (n=532), New Zealand (n=42), and Vietnam (n=706), of whom 642 were randomly assigned to fluoxetine and 638 were randomly assigned to placebo. Mean duration of trial treatment was 167 days (SD 48·1). At 6 months, mRS data were available in 624 (97%) patients in the fluoxetine group and 632 (99%) in the placebo group. The distribution of mRS categories was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (adjusted common odds ratio 0·94, 95% CI 0·76–1·15; p=0·53). Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the fluoxetine group had more falls (20 [3%] vs seven [1%]; p=0·018), bone fractures (19 [3%] vs six [1%]; p=0·014), and epileptic seizures (ten [2%] vs two [<1%]; p=0·038) at 6 months. Interpretation Oral fluoxetine 20 mg daily for 6 months after acute stroke did not improve functional outcome and increased the risk of falls, bone fractures, and epileptic seizures. These results do not support the use of fluoxetine to improve functional outcome after stroke

    US financial crisis impact on Asian economies : does “decoupling” theory hold : the case of Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

    Get PDF
    Until recently, many investors believed in decoupling theory which says that emerging countries can be resilient from the weakening of US economy and keep stable growths. In 2007, international investors observed a rise on stock markets of some emerging countries when stock price on developed markets in the US or the UK dropped dramatically. Meanwhile, they also observed prosperous economic growth in these emerging markets. This trend supported decoupling theory’s proponents who argue that when emerging stock markets move against a slump on developed markets as US or UK, the economy of these countries will also grow healthily. Since this argument is on discussion, the paper plans to find out a plausible answer for the question: if decoupling theory holds for stock market of emerging countries, will it also hold for their economies. The paper made data research on US market in relation with three other export-dependent Asian markets – Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam and will discuss two problems: (1) how is co-movement of Asian and the US stock markets from 2007 to 2009, and (2) how the economy of these markets responds in the according year. The paper expects to find that stock markets in emerging Asian countries are decoupled from US stock market and their economies also move independently. Data showed that in 2007, there was decoupling effect between Singapore, Thailand and the US. However, from October 2008 until March 2009, stock markets of these countries tracked the movement of US market quite closely. At the same time, their macro economic indicators were on downward trend. In these Southeast Asian countries, decoupling theory just holds for a short period when world economy is in good condition and we could not find certain sign whether it will hold again in the future

    External Gas-Assisted Mold Temperature Control Improves Weld Line Quality in the Injection Molding Process

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    Simulations and experiments were conducted with gas temperatures of 200&ndash;400 &deg;C to investigate the impact of external gas-assisted mold temperature control (Ex-GMTC) on the quality of weld line of molding products. In the heating step, the heating rate was 19.6 &deg;C/s from 30 to 128.5 &deg;C in the first 5 s in a 400 &deg;C gas environment. When applied to heating the weld line area of an injection mold, Ex-GMTC improved the appearance of the weld line when the cavity temperature was preheated to 150 &deg;C. For the tensile strength test, a melt flow simulation comparing the packing pressure of different mesh thicknesses revealed that Ex-GMTC helped maintain a high pressure in the weld line area in different packing periods. This was verified by an experiment where Ex-GMTC was applied with 400 &deg;C gas to change the mesh area temperature. The result indicated that an increase in the weld line area temperature from 60 to 180 &deg;C improves the tensile strength of all mesh thicknesses, which was more pronounced with thinner parts, especially at 0.4 mm. The simulations revealed that high temperature is concentrated in the weld line area of the cavity surface, thus reducing the energy wasted during heating

    Study on External Gas-Assisted Mold Temperature Control with the Assistance of a Flow Focusing Device in the Injection Molding Process

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    In the injection molding field, the flow of plastic material is one of the most important issues, especially regarding the ability of melted plastic to fill the thin walls of products. To improve the melt flow length, a high mold temperature was applied with pre-heating of the cavity surface. In this paper, we present our research on the injection molding process with pre-heating by external gas-assisted mold temperature control. After this, we observed an improvement in the melt flow length into thin-walled products due to the high mold temperature during the filling step. In addition, to develop the heating efficiency, a flow focusing device (FFD) was applied and verified. The simulations and experiments were carried out within an air temperature of 400 °C and heating time of 20 s to investigate a flow focusing device to assist with external gas-assisted mold temperature control (Ex-GMTC), with the application of various FFD types for the temperature distribution of the insert plate. The heating process was applied for a simple insert model with dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 2 mm, in order to verify the influence of the FFD geometry on the heating result. After that, Ex-GMTC with the assistance of FFD was carried out for a mold-reading process, and the FFD influence was estimated by the mold heating result and the improvement of the melt flow length using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The results show that the air sprue gap (h) significantly affects the temperature of the insert and an air sprue gap of 3 mm gives the best heating rate, with the highest temperature being 321.2 °C. Likewise, the actual results show that the height of the flow focusing device (V) also influences the temperature of the insert plate and that a 5 mm high FFD gives the best results with a maximum temperature of 332.3 °C. Moreover, the heating efficiency when using FFD is always higher than without FFD. After examining the effect of FFD, its application was considered, in order to improve the melt flow length in injection molding, which increased from 38.6 to 170 mm, while the balance of the melt filling was also clearly improved
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