9,785 research outputs found

    Exact Green's functions and Bosonization of a Luttinger liquid coupled to impedances

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    The exact Green's functions of a finite-size Luttinger Liquid (LL) connected to impedances are computed at zero and finite temperature. Bosonization for a LL with Impedance boundary conditions (IBC) is proven to hold. The LL with open boundary conditions (for both Neumann and Dirichlet cases) is explicitly recovered as a special limit when one has infinite impedances. Additionally when the impedances are equal to the characteristic impedance of the Luttinger liquid then the finite Luttinger liquid is shown to be effectively equivalent to an infinite Luttinger liquid

    Convergence of the Lasserre Hierarchy of SDP Relaxations for Convex Polynomial Programs without Compactness

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    The Lasserre hierarchy of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations is an effective scheme for finding computationally feasible SDP approximations of polynomial optimization over compact semi-algebraic sets. In this paper, we show that, for convex polynomial optimization, the Lasserre hierarchy with a slightly extended quadratic module always converges asymptotically even in the face of non-compact semi-algebraic feasible sets. We do this by exploiting a coercivity property of convex polynomials that are bounded below. We further establish that the positive definiteness of the Hessian of the associated Lagrangian at a saddle-point (rather than the objective function at each minimizer) guarantees finite convergence of the hierarchy. We obtain finite convergence by first establishing a new sum-of-squares polynomial representation of convex polynomials over convex semi-algebraic sets under a saddle-point condition. We finally prove that the existence of a saddle-point of the Lagrangian for a convex polynomial program is also necessary for the hierarchy to have finite convergence.Comment: 17 page

    Wavefunctions for the Luttinger liquid

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    Standard bosonization techniques lead to phonon-like excitations in a Luttinger liquid (LL), reflecting the absence of Landau quasiparticles in these systems. Yet in addition to the above excitations some LL are known to possess solitonic states carrying fractional quantum numbers (e.g. the spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain). We have reconsidered the zero modes in the low-energy spectrum of the gaussian boson LL hamiltonian both for fermionic and bosonic LL: in the spinless case we find that two elementary excitations carrying fractional quantum numbers allow to generate all the charge and current excited states of the LL. We explicitly compute the wavefunctions of these two objects and show that one of them can be identified with the 1D version of the Laughlin quasiparticle introduced in the context of the Fractional Quantum Hall effect. For bosons, the other quasiparticle corresponds to a spinon excitation. The eigenfunctions of Wen's chiral LL hamiltonian are also derived: they are quite simply the one dimensional restrictions of the 2D bulk Laughlin wavefunctions.Comment: 5 pages; accepted for publication in EPR B, Rapid Note

    Fractional excitations in the Luttinger liquid

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    We reconsider the spectrum of the Luttinger liquid (LL) usually understood in terms of phonons (density fluctuations), and within the context of bosonization we give an alternative representation in terms of fractional states. This allows to make contact with Bethe Ansatz which predicts similar fractional states. As an example we study the spinon operator in the absence of spin rotational invariance and derive it from first principles: we find that it is not a semion in general; a trial Jastrow wavefunction is also given for that spinon state. Our construction of the new spectroscopy based on fractional states leads to several new physical insights: in the low-energy limit, we find that the Sz=0S_{z}=0 continuum of gapless spin chains is due to pairs of fractional quasiparticle-quasihole states which are the 1D counterpart of the Laughlin FQHE quasiparticles. The holon operator for the Luttinger liquid with spin is also derived. In the presence of a magnetic field, spin-charge separation is not realized any longer in a LL: the holon and the spinon are then replaced by new fractional states which we are able to describe.Comment: Revised version to appear in Physical Review B. 27 pages, 5 figures. Expands cond-mat/9905020 (Eur.Phys.Journ.B 9, 573 (1999)