244 research outputs found

    Rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements in the winter polar stratosphere

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    In January and February 1987 stratospheric rocket- and aircraft-borne trace gas measurements were done in the North Polar region using ACIMS (Active Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) and PACIMS (PAssive Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) instruments. The rocket was launched at ESRANGE (European Sounding Rocket Launching Range) (68 N, 21 E, Northern Sweden) and the twin-jet research aircraft operated by the DFVLR (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchs-anstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt), and equipped with a mass spectrometer laboratory was stationed at Kiruna airport. Various stratospheric trace gases were measured including nitric acid, sulfuric acid, non-methane hydrocarbons (acetone, hydrogen cyanide, acetonitrile, methanol etc.), and ambient cluster ions. The experimental data is presented and possible implications for polar stratospheric ozone discussed

    New retrieval of BrO from SCIAMACHY limb: an estimate of the stratospheric bromine loading during April 2008

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    We present a new retrieval of stratospheric BrO (bromine monoxide) from channel 2 SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) limb observations. Retrievals are shown to agree with independent balloon observations to within one standard deviation of the retrieval noise. We retrieve BrO profiles for all of April 2008, and apply simulated [BrO]/[Br<sub>y</sub>] (bromine monoxide : stratospheric inorganic bromine) ratios to estimate the stratospheric Br<sub>y</sub> loading. We find 23.5 ± 6 ppt Br, suggesting 7 ppt Br from short-lived bromocarbons to be at the high end of the current best estimate (3–8 ppt). The 6 ppt Br uncertainty estimate is dominated by the 21% uncertainty in the simulated [BrO] / [Br<sub>y</sub>] ratio due to propagation of errors from the underlying chemical kinetics

    Mid-latitude ozone changes: studies with a 3-D CTM forced by ERA-40 analyses

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    International audienceWe have used an off-line three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (CTM) to study long-term changes in stratospheric O3. The model was run from 1977?2004 and forced by ECMWF ERA-40 and operational analyses. Model runs were performed to examine the impact of increasing halogens and additional stratospheric bromine from short-lived source gases. The analyses capture much of the observed interannual variability in column ozone, but there are also unrealistic features. In particular the ERA-40 analyses cause a large positive anomaly in northern hemisphere (NH) column O3 in the late 1980s. Also, the change from ERA-40 to operational winds at the start of 2002 introduces abrupt changes in some model fields which affect analysis of trends. The model reproduces the observed column increase in NH mid-latitudes from the mid 1990s. Analysis of a run with fixed halogens shows that this increase is not due to a significant decrease in halogen-induced loss, i.e. is not an indication of recovery. The model predicts only a small decrease in halogen-induced loss after 1999. In the upper stratosphere, despite the modelled turnover of chlorine around 1999, O3 does not increase to the effects of increasing ECMWF temperatures, decreasing modelled CH4 at this altitude, and abrupt changes to the SH temperatures at the end of the ERA-40 period. The impact of an additional 5 pptv stratospheric bromine from short-lived species decreases mid-latitude column O3 by about 10 DU. However, the impact on the modelled relative O3 anomaly is generally small except during periods of large volcanic loading

    Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

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    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr<sub>3</sub>) and dibromomethane (CH<sub>2</sub>Br<sub>2</sub>), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr<sub>3</sub> and CH<sub>2</sub>Br<sub>2</sub> and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8–8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr<sub>3</sub> and CH<sub>2</sub>Br<sub>2</sub> together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (Br<sub>y</sub><sup>VSLS</sup>). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger Br<sub>y</sub><sup>VSLS</sup> as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2–3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt)

    Bromine in the tropical troposphere and stratosphere as derived from balloon-borne BrO observations

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    The first tropospheric and stratospheric (4 to 33 km) BrO profile is presented for the inner tropics derived from balloon-borne DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements. In combination with photochemical modelling, total stratospheric inorganic bromine (Br&lt;sub&gt;y&lt;/sub&gt;) is deduced to be (21.5&amp;plusmn;2.5) ppt in 4.5-year-old air, probed in 2005. We derive a total contribution of (5.2&amp;plusmn;2.5) ppt from brominated very short-lived substances and inorganic product gases to stratospheric Br&lt;sub&gt;y&lt;/sub&gt; Tropospheric BrO was found to be &lt;1 ppt. Our results are compared to two 3-D CTM SLIMCAT model runs, which differ in the lifetime of the bromine source gases, affecting the vertical distribution of Br&lt;sub&gt;y&lt;/sub&gt; in the lower stratosphere. Bromine source gas measurements performed 10 days earlier Laube et al., 2008, indicate a lower Br&lt;sub&gt;y&lt;/sub&gt; of (17.5&amp;plusmn;0.4) ppt. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

    Iterative in Situ Click Chemistry Assembles a Branched Capture Agent and Allosteric Inhibitor for Akt1

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    We describe the use of iterative in situ click chemistry to design an Akt-specific branched peptide triligand that is a drop-in replacement for monoclonal antibodies in multiple biochemical assays. Each peptide module in the branched structure makes unique contributions to affinity and/or specificity resulting in a 200 nM affinity ligand that efficiently immunoprecipitates Akt from cancer cell lysates and labels Akt in fixed cells. Our use of a small molecule to preinhibit Akt prior to screening resulted in low micromolar inhibitory potency and an allosteric mode of inhibition, which is evidenced through a series of competitive enzyme kinetic assays. To demonstrate the efficiency and selectivity of the protein-templated in situ click reaction, we developed a novel QPCR-based methodology that enabled a quantitative assessment of its yield. These results point to the potential for iterative in situ click chemistry to generate potent, synthetically accessible antibody replacements with novel inhibitory properties

    Airborne glyoxal measurements in the marine and continental atmosphere: comparison with TROPOMI observations and EMAC simulations

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    We report on airborne limb and nadir measurements of vertical profiles and total vertical column densities (VCDs) of glyoxal (C2H2O2) in the troposphere, which were performed aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng Range) in different regions and seasons around the globe between 2014 and 2019. The airborne nadir and integrated limb profiles agree excellently among each other. Our airborne observations are further compared to collocated glyoxal measurements of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), with good agreement between both data sets for glyoxal observations in (1) pristine terrestrial, (2) pristine marine, (3) mixed polluted, and (4) biomass-burning-affected air masses with high glyoxal concentrations. Exceptions to the overall good agreement are observations of (1) faint and aged biomass burning plumes over the oceans and (2) of low-lying biomass burning or anthropogenic plumes in the terrestrial or marine boundary layer, both of which contain elevated glyoxal that is mostly not captured by TROPOMI. These differences in airborne and satellite-detected glyoxal are most likely caused by the overall small contribution of plumes of a limited extent to the total glyoxal absorption in the atmosphere and the difficulty in remotely detecting weak absorbers located close to low reflective surfaces (e.g. the ocean in the visible wavelength range) or within dense aerosol layers. Observations of glyoxal in aged biomass burning plumes (e.g. observed over the tropical Atlantic off the coast of West Africa in summer 2018, off the coast of Brazil by the end of the dry season 2019, and the East China Sea in spring 2018) could be traced back to related wildfires, such as a plume crossing over the Drake Passage that originated from the Australian bushfires in late 2019. Our observations of glyoxal in such aged biomass burning plumes confirm recent findings of enhanced glyoxal and presumably secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in aged wildfire plumes from yet-to-be-identified, longer-lived organic precursor molecules (e.g. aromatics, acetylene, or aliphatic compounds) co-emitted in the fires. Furthermore, elevated glyoxal (median 44 ppt – parts per trillion), as compared to other marine regions (median 10–19 ppt), is observed in the boundary layer over the tropical oceans, which is well in agreement with previous reports. The airborne data sets are further compared to glyoxal simulations performed with the global atmosphere chemistry model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). When using an EMAC set up that resembles recent EMAC studies focusing on complex chemistry, reasonable agreement is found for pristine air masses (e.g. the unperturbed free and upper troposphere), but a notable glyoxal overestimation of the model exists for regions with high emissions of glyoxal and glyoxal-producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the biosphere (e.g. the Amazon). In all other investigated regions, the model underpredicts glyoxal to varying degrees, in particular when probing mixed emissions from anthropogenic activities (e.g. over continental Europe, the Mediterranean, and East China Sea) and potentially from the sea (e.g. the tropical oceans). Also, the model tends to largely underpredict glyoxal in city plumes and aged biomass burning plumes. The potential causes for these differences are likely to be multifaceted, but they all point to missing glyoxal sources from the degradation of the mixture of potentially longer-chained organic compounds emitted from anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, and from the organic microlayer of the sea surface.</p

    Iodine monoxide in the Western Pacific marine boundary layer

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    A latitudinal cross-section and vertical profiles of iodine monoxide (IO) are reported from the marine boundary layer of the Western Pacific. The measurements were taken using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) during the TransBrom cruise of the German research vessel Sonne, which led from Tomakomai, Japan (42° N, 141° E) through the Western Pacific to Townsville, Australia (19° S, 146° E) in October 2009. In the marine boundary layer within the tropics (between 20° N and 5° S), IO mixing ratios ranged between 1 and 2.2 ppt, whereas in the subtropics and at mid-latitudes typical IO mixing ratios were around 1 ppt in the daytime. The profile retrieval reveals that the bulk of the IO was located in the lower part of the marine boundary layer. Photochemical simulations indicate that the organic iodine precursors observed during the cruise (CH3I, CH2I2, CH2ClI, CH2BrI) are not sufficient to explain the measured IO mixing ratios. Reasonable agreement between measured and modelled IO can only be achieved, if an additional sea-air flux of inorganic iodine (e.g. I2) is assumed in the model. Our observations add further evidence to previous studies that reactive iodine is an important oxidant in the marine boundary layer

    The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements

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    International audienceWithin the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7–418 nm and the visible from 400–652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively) from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3, and NO2), the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance is +1.6% larger than the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984) solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.5) in the visible spectral range (435–650 nm), +1.5% larger in the (370–415 nm) wavelength interval, but -4% smaller in the UV spectral range (316.7–370 nm), when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. The same comparison with the SOLSPEC solar spectrum (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b) confirms the somewhat larger solar irradiance (+1.7%) measured by the balloon instrument from 435–500 nm, but not from 500–650 nm, where the SOLSPEC is -1.3% lower than MODTRAN 3.5. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (– re-calibrated by the University of Bremen –) with MODTRAN 3.5 indicates an agreement of +0.2% in the visible spectral range (435–585 nm). With this calibration, the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum is congruent with the balloon observations (-1%) in the 316.7–370 nm wavelength range, but both are up to -5%/-3% smaller than MODTRAN 3.5 and SOLSPEC, respectively. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002) our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements
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