336 research outputs found

    Shadows of the SIS immortality transition in small networks

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    Much of the research on the behavior of the SIS model on networks has concerned the infinite size limit; in particular the phase transition between a state where outbreaks can reach a finite fraction of the population, and a state where only a finite number would be infected. For finite networks, there is also a dynamic transition---the immortality transition---when the per-contact transmission probability λ\lambda reaches one. If λ<1\lambda < 1, the probability that an outbreak will survive by an observation time tt tends to zero as tt \rightarrow \infty; if λ=1\lambda = 1, this probability is one. We show that treating λ=1\lambda = 1 as a critical point predicts the λ\lambda-dependence of the survival probability also for more moderate λ\lambda-values. The exponent, however, depends on the underlying network. This fact could, by measuring how a vertex' deletion changes the exponent, be used to evaluate the role of a vertex in the outbreak. Our work also confirms an extremely clear separation between the early die-off (from the outbreak failing to take hold in the population) and the later extinctions (corresponding to rare stochastic events of several consecutive transmission events failing to occur).Comment: Bug fixes from the first versio

    Model validation of simple-graph representations of metabolism

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    The large-scale properties of chemical reaction systems, such as the metabolism, can be studied with graph-based methods. To do this, one needs to reduce the information -- lists of chemical reactions -- available in databases. Even for the simplest type of graph representation, this reduction can be done in several ways. We investigate different simple network representations by testing how well they encode information about one biologically important network structure -- network modularity (the propensity for edges to be cluster into dense groups that are sparsely connected between each other). To reach this goal, we design a model of reaction-systems where network modularity can be controlled and measure how well the reduction to simple graphs capture the modular structure of the model reaction system. We find that the network types that best capture the modular structure of the reaction system are substrate-product networks (where substrates are linked to products of a reaction) and substance networks (with edges between all substances participating in a reaction). Furthermore, we argue that the proposed model for reaction systems with tunable clustering is a general framework for studies of how reaction-systems are affected by modularity. To this end, we investigate statistical properties of the model and find, among other things, that it recreate correlations between degree and mass of the molecules.Comment: to appear in J. Roy. Soc. Intefac

    A Zero-Temperature Study of Vortex Mobility in Two-Dimensional Vortex Glass Models

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    Three different vortex glass models are studied by examining the energy barrier against vortex motion across the system. In the two-dimensional gauge glass this energy barrier is found to increase logarithmically with system size which is interpreted as evidence for a low-temperature phase with zero resistivity. Associated with the large energy barriers is a breaking of ergodicity which explains why the well established results from equilibrium studies could fail. The behavior of the more realistic random pinning model is however different with decreasing energy barriers a no finite critical temperature

    Exploring Temporal Networks with Greedy Walks

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    Temporal networks come with a wide variety of heterogeneities, from burstiness of event sequences to correlations between timings of node and link activations. In this paper, we set to explore the latter by using greedy walks as probes of temporal network structure. Given a temporal network (a sequence of contacts), greedy walks proceed from node to node by always following the first available contact. Because of this, their structure is particularly sensitive to temporal-topological patterns involving repeated contacts between sets of nodes. This becomes evident in their small coverage per step as compared to a temporal reference model -- in empirical temporal networks, greedy walks often get stuck within small sets of nodes because of correlated contact patterns. While this may also happen in static networks that have pronounced community structure, the use of the temporal reference model takes the underlying static network structure out of the equation and indicates that there is a purely temporal reason for the observations. Further analysis of the structure of greedy walks indicates that burst trains, sequences of repeated contacts between node pairs, are the dominant factor. However, there are larger patterns too, as shown with non-backtracking greedy walks. We proceed further to study the entropy rates of greedy walks, and show that the sequences of visited nodes are more structured and predictable in original data as compared to temporally uncorrelated references. Taken together, these results indicate a richness of correlated temporal-topological patterns in temporal networks