512 research outputs found

    Evaluation of subcutaneous proleukin (Interleukin-2) in a randomized international trial (ESPRIT): Geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

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    Background: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells ≥300 cells/μL. Objectives: To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Method: Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. Results: 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/μL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (<500 cp/mL). Conclusion: ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV research. As a consequence, the results of the study may have wide global applicability

    A structural role for arginine in proteins: Multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens

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    We propose that arginine side chains often play a previously unappreciated general structural role in the maintenance of tertiary structure in proteins, wherein the positively charged guanidinium group forms multiple hydrogen bonds to backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using as a criterion for a “structural” arginine one that forms 4 or more hydrogen bonds to 3 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, we have used molecular graphics to locate arginines of interest in 4 proteins: Arg 180 in Thermus thermophilus manganese superoxide dismutase, Arg 254 in human carbonic anhydrase II, Arg 31 in Streptomyces rubiginosus xylose isomerase, and Arg 313 in Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose‐1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Arg 180 helps to mold the active site channel of superoxide dismutase, whereas in each of the other enzymes the structural arginine is buried in the “mantle” (i.e., inside, but near the surface) of the protein interior well removed from the active site, where it makes 5 hydrogen bonds to 4 backbone carbonyl oxygens. Using a more relaxed criterion of 3 or more hydrogen bonds to 2 or more backbone carbonyl oxygens, arginines that play a potentially important structural role were found in yeast enolase, Bacillus stearothermophilus glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase, bacteriophage T4 and human lysozymes, Enteromorpha prolifera plastocyanin, HIV‐1 protease, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and yeast triosephosphate isomerases, and Escherichia coli trp aporepressor (but not trp repressor or the trp repressor/operator complex). In addition to helping form the active site funnel in superoxide dismutase, the structural arginines found in this study play such diverse roles as stapling together 3 strands of backbone from different regions of the primary sequence, and tying α‐helix to α‐helix, βturn to β‐turn, and subunit to subunit. Copyright © 1994 The Protein Societ

    No overall change in the rate of weight gain after switching to an integrase-inhibitor in virologically suppressed adults with HIV

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    OBJECTIVE: Excessive weight gain has been reported with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). We evaluated weight changes in virologically-suppressed adults with HIV who switched from non-INSTI regimens to raltegravir- or dolutegravir-containing antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective single-centre cohort. METHODS: Adults who switched to raltegravir or dolutegravir before or between January-2015 and October-2017 were identified. Virologically-suppressed, treatment-experienced (≥2 years) individuals, ≥6 months on INSTI, with weight measurements ≤2years pre- and post-switch were included. Our analysis used a random effects model with linear slope pre- and post-INSTI with adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, pre-switch-regimen (protease inhibitor vs. non-protease inhibitor), and raltegravir vs. dolutegravir use. RESULTS: 378 individuals, 81.2% male, 70.1% white ethnicity, median age of 49 years, median of four weight measurements per participant, and median weight and body mass index (BMI) at switch, of 76.6 kg, and 25.3 kg/m respectively were included. Weight increased by an average of 0.63 kg/year (95% CI 0.17-1.09) pre-switch with no overall change in rate of weight gain post-switch [+0.05 kg/year (-0.61-0.71, p = 0.88)]. In our adjusted model, a transition from minimal weight change to weight gain post-switch was isolated to older individuals though this lacked statistical significance [e.g. +1.59 kg/year (-0.26-3.45) if aged 65 years]. Our findings did not differ by gender, ethnicity, pre-switch regimen, or raltegravir vs. dolutegravir. Similar results were seen for BMI and after adjusting for fixed nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. CONCLUSION: We found no clear evidence of an overall increase in rate of weight gain following switch to INSTI in virologically-suppressed individuals

    Modulation of topoisomerase IIα expression and chemosensitivity through targeted inhibition of NF-Y:DNA binding by a diamino p-anisyl-benzimidazole (Hx) polyamide

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    BACKGROUND: Sequence specific polyamide HxIP 1, targeted to the inverted CCAAT Box 2 (ICB2) on the topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) promoter can inhibit NF-Y binding, re-induce gene expression and increase sensitivity to etoposide. To enhance biological activity, diamino-containing derivatives (HxI*P 2 and HxIP* 3) were synthesised incorporating an alkyl amino group at the N1-heterocyclic position of the imidazole/pyrrole. METHODS: DNase I footprinting was used to evaluate DNA binding of the diamino Hx-polyamides, and their ability to disrupt the NF-Y:ICB2 interaction assessed using EMSAs. Topo IIα mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Immunoblotting) levels were measured following 18h polyamide treatment of confluent A549 cells. γH2AX was used as a marker for etoposide-induced DNA damage after pre-treatment with HxIP* 3 and cell viability was measured using Cell-Titer Glo®. RESULTS: Introduction of the N1-alkyl amino group reduced selectivity for the target sequence 5'-TACGAT-3' on the topo IIα promoter, but increased DNA binding affinity. Confocal microscopy revealed both fluorescent diamino polyamides localised in the nucleus, yet HxI*P 2 was unable to disrupt the NF-Y:ICB2 interaction and showed no effect against the downregulation of topo IIα. In contrast, inhibition of NF-Y binding by HxIP* 3 stimulated dose-dependent (0.1-2μM) re-induction of topo IIα and potentiated cytotoxicity of topo II poisons by enhancing DNA damage. CONCLUSIONS: Polyamide functionalisation at the N1-position offers a design strategy to improve drug-like properties. Dicationic HxIP* 3 increased topo IIα expression and chemosensitivity to topo II-targeting agents. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Pharmacological modulation of topo IIα expression has the potential to enhance cellular sensitivity to clinically-used anticancer therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear Factor Y in Development and Disease, edited by Prof. Roberto Mantovani

    Solid-phase phosphorus speciation in Saharan Bodélé depression dusts and source sediments

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    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important limiting nutrients for the growth of oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial ecosystems, which in turn contributes to CO2 sequestration. The solid-phase speciation of P will influence its solubility and hence its availability to such ecosystems. This study reports on the results of X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe chemical analysis and X-ray mapping, chemical extractions and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis carried out to determine the solid-phase speciation of P in dusts and their source sediments from the Saharan Bodélé Depression, the world’s largest single source of dust. Chemical extraction data suggest that the Bodélé dusts contain 28 to 60% (mean 49%) P sorbed to, or co-precipitated with Fe (hydr)oxides, < 10% organic P, 21-50% (mean 32%) detrital apatite P, and 10-22% (mean 15%) authigenic-biogenic apatite P. This is confirmed by the other analyses, which also suggest that the authigenic-biogenic apatite P is likely fish bone and scale, and that this might form a larger proportion of the apatite pool (33 +/− 22%) than given by the extraction data. This is the first-ever report of fish material in aeolian dust, and it is significant because P derived from fish bone and scale is relatively soluble and is often used as a soil fertilizer. Therefore, the fish-P will likely be the most readily form of Bodélé P consumed during soil weathering and atmospheric processing, but given time and acid dissolution, the detrital apatite, Fe-P and organic-P will also be made available. The Bodélé dust input of P to global ecosystems will only have a limited life, however, because its major source materials, diatomite in the Bodélé Depression, undergo persistent deflation and have a finite thickness

    Utility of a buccal swab point-of-care test for the IFNL4 genotype in the era of direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus.

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    BACKGROUND: The CC genotype of the IFNL4 gene is known to be associated with increased Hepatitis C (HCV) cure rates with interferon-based therapy and may contribute to cure with direct acting antivirals. The Genedrive® IFNL4 is a CE marked Point of Care (PoC) molecular diagnostic test, designed for in vitro diagnostic use to provide rapid, real-time detection of IFNL4 genotype status for SNP rs12979860. METHODS: 120 Participants were consented to a substudy comparing IFNL4 genotyping results from a buccal swab analysed on the Genedrive® platform with results generated using the Affymetix UK Biobank array considered to be the gold standard. RESULTS: Buccal swabs were taken from 120 participants for PoC IFNL4 testing and a whole blood sample for genetic sequencing. Whole blood genotyping vs. buccal swab PoC testing identified 40 (33%), 65 (54%), and 15 (13%) had CC, CT and TT IFNL4 genotype respectively. The Buccal swab PoC identified 38 (32%) CC, 64 (53%) CT and 18 (15%) TT IFNL4 genotype respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the buccal swab test to detect CC vs non-CC was 90% (95% CI 76-97%) and 98% (95% CI 91-100%) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The buccal swab test was better at correctly identifying non-CC genotypes than CC genotypes. The high specificity of the Genedrive® assay prevents CT/TT genotypes being mistaken for CC, and could avoid patients being identified as potentially 'good responders' to interferon-based therapy