34 research outputs found

    Performance of a Simplified Soft-Distance decoding algorithm for LDPC codes over the Rayleigh fading channel

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    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Soft-Input soft-Output decoding algorithm for LDPC codes that uses Euclidean distance as its metric, in the Rayleigh fading channel. It is found that its Bit Error Rate performance is close to that of traditional decoding algorithms like the SumProduct algorithm and its logarithmic version. Main characteristics of the proposed algorithm and its modification to perform over the Rayleigh channel are described. This algorithm uses squared Euclidean distance as the metric, does not require knowledge of the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, and is less complex to implement than other soft-input, soft-output algorithms.Fil: Arnone, Leonardo Jose. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ingeniería; ArgentinaFil: Liberatori, Mónica Cristina. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ingeniería. Departamento de Electrónica. Laboratorio de Comunicaciones; ArgentinaFil: Petruzzi, David Mario. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ingeniería. Departamento de Electrónica. Laboratorio de Comunicaciones; ArgentinaFil: Farrell, P. G.. Lancaster University. Department of Communications Systems; Reino UnidoFil: Castiñeira Moreira, Jorge. Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Facultad de Ingenieria; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Mar del Plata; Argentin

    An In Vitro Fermentation Study on the Effects of Gluten FriendlyTM Bread on Microbiota and Short Chain Fatty Acids of Fecal Samples from Healthy and Celiac Subjects

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    Recently, an innovative gluten detoxification method called Gluten FriendlyTM (GF) has been developed. It induces structural modifications, which abolish the antigenic capacity of gluten and reduce the in vitro immunogenicity of the most common epitopes involved in celiac disease, without compromising the nutritional and technological properties. This study investigated the in vitro effects of GF bread (GFB) on the fecal microbiota from healthy and celiac individuals by a three-stage continuous fermentative system, which simulates the colon (vessel 1, proximal colon; vessel 2, transverse colon; and vessel 3, distal colon), as well as on the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate). The system was fed with GFB and the changes in microbiota through fluorescence in situ hybridization and in SCFA content were assessed. GFB exerted beneficial modulations such as bifidogenic effects in each compartment of the model both with healthy- and celiac-derived samples, as well as growth in Clostridium clusters XIVa+b in celiac-derived samples. Furthermore, increased levels of acetic acid were found in vessel 1 inoculated with the fecal microbiota of healthy individuals, as well as acetic and propionic in vessel 1 and 2 with celiac-derived samples. In addition, the use of multivariate approaches showed that the supplementation of GFB could result in a different modulation of the fecal microbiota and SCFA, as a function of initial equilibrium

    Healthy and pro-inflammatory gut ecology plays a crucial role in the digestion and tolerance of a novel Gluten Friendlyℱ bread in celiac subjects : Randomized, double blind, placebo control in vivo study

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    Gluten Friendlyℱ (GF) is a new gluten achieved through a physicochemical process applied to wheat kernels. The goal of this research was to assess the in vivo effects of Gluten Friendlyℱ bread on celiac gut mucosa and microbiota. In a double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, 48 celiac disease (CD) patients were randomized into 3 groups to eat 100 g of bread daily, containing different doses (0; 3 g; 6 g) of GF for 12 weeks. The small-bowel morphology (VH/CrD), intraepithelial densities of CD3+, celiac serology, MUC2, CB1, gut permeability, proinflammatory cytokines, gluten in stools, symptoms, and gut microbial composition were assessed. All 48 CD subjects experienced no symptoms. K-means analysis evidenced celiac subjects clustering around unknown parameters independent of GF dosage: K1 35%; K2 30%; K3 35%. VH/CrD significantly decreased in K1 and K2. VH/CrD did not correlate with IEL increase in K2. 33-mer was not detected in 47% and 73% of patients in both K1 and K2, respectively. VH/CrD and IEL did not change significantly and strongly correlated with the absence of 33-mer in K3. Inflammation and VH/CrD decrease are strongly related with the presence of proinflammatory species at the baseline. A boost in probiotic, butyrate-producing genera, is strongly related with GF tolerance at the end of the trial. Our research suggests that a healthy and proinflammatory ecology could play a crucial role in the digestion and tolerance of the new gluten molecule in celiac subjects. However, GF can be completely digested by gut microbiota of CD subjects and shapes it toward gut homeostasis by boosting healthy butyrate-producing populations. The clinical trial registry number is NCT03137862 (https://clinicaltrials.gov).publishedVersionPeer reviewe

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

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    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 ÎŒg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain

    Selection and characterization of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae as functional starters for the removal of ochratoxin A in wine

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    ABSTRACT IN ITALIANO Presupposto scientifico del tema di ricerca: (i) Diversi studi hanno dimostrato il ruolo chiave dei lieviti autoctoni nelle fermentazioni vinarie; (ii) Le colture starter funzionali rappresentano una nuova frontiera nella realizzazione dei prodotti alimentari, poichĂ© presentano, oltre ai benefici tipici delle colture starter, quelli piĂč propriamente legati alla salute o alla matrice alimentare; (iii) Nel processo di vinificazione, l’ocratossina A rappresenta il principale problema inerente la sicurezza. Obiettivi: Studiare i caratteri tecnologici e qualitatitivi, e le performances micro-fermentative e la rimozione dell’ocratossina A (OTA) di ceppi autoctoni di Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolati da un vitigno tipico della regione Puglia (Uva di Troia). Materiali e Metodi: I ceppi sono stati identificati mediante PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism) della regione ITS e sequenziati. I caratteri tecnologici e qualitativi sono stati saggiati su opportuni mezzi di laboratorio. Le prove di micro-fermentazione sono state condotte a differenti temperature di fermentazione e a differenti concentrazioni di zucchero ed azoto. I prodotti della micro-fermentazione sono stati valutati mediante Spettroscopia Infrarossa in Trasformata di Fourier (FTIR), mentre il contenuto di OTA Ăš stato determinato mediante saggio immuno-enzimatico (ELISA). Significato ed Impatto dello studio: Per la prima volta, la capacitĂ  di rimuovere l’OTA durante la fermentazione alcolica da parte di S. cerevisiae Ăš stata utilizzata come carattere addizionale in un programma di caratterizzazione dei lieviti. I risultati potrebbero avere una valenza applicativa per la possibilitĂ  di utilizzare ceppi autoctoni come starter funzionali per la produzione di vini con migliori proprietĂ  qualitative e di sicurezza. ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH Scientific background of the research problem: (i) Several studies have showed the key role of autochthonous yeasts in wine fermentation; (ii) Functional starter cultures represent a new frontier goal for the design of food products, as they show the benefits of traditional starters and have an additional function health- or product-focused; (iii) Ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered the principal safety hazard in the winemaking process. Aims: To study technological and qualitative traits, and micro-fermentation performances and OTA removal of some autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a typical grapevine cultivar of the Apulian region (Uva di Troia). Materials and Methods: Yeast strains were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and sequenced. Technological and qualitative traits were assessed on the opportune laboratory media. Micro- fermentation trials were performed at different fermentation temperatures and sugar and nitrogen concentrations. Micro-fermentation products were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), while OTA content was determined by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Significance and Impact of the Study: For the first time, the ability of S. cerevisiae to remove OTA during alcoholic fermentation was used as additional trait in a yeast-characterization programme. The results could have an applicative value for the potentiality of using autochthonous strains as functional starters for the production of typical wines with improved qualitative and safety characteristics

    Using regression and Multifactorial Analysis of Variance to assess the effect of ascorbic, citric, and malic acids on spores and activated spores of Alicyclobacillusacidoterrestris

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    The type strain of the species Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (DSM 3922) and the strain CB1 (accession number: KP144333) were studied in this research to assess the effects of three weak acids (malic, citric, and ascorbic acids), pH (3 or 4), and spore status (spores, and activated spores). Acids were used to prepare 7 different blends, and the blends used to reduce the pH of Malt Extract broth to 3 and 4; then, media were inoculated with spores or activated spores, stored at 45 degrees C (optimal temperature for A. acidoterrestris growth), and analyzed immediately and after 2 and 7 days.Data were preliminary standardized as increase/reduction of microbial population, compared to the initial concentration, and modelled through two different statistical approaches (multifactorial ANOVA, and multiple regression). Finally, a binary code (0-no growth or reduction of viable count; 1-growth) was used to perform a multiple regression analysis on the growth probability of A. acidoterrestris.Generally, ascorbic acid was the most effective compound, but other acids (e.g., malic acid) could contribute to increase the inactivation ratio; concerning spore status, the highest sensitivity of activated spores suggests that acids probably act during the outgrowing phase. Finally, the two strains showed different trends at pH 3.0, being the type strain the most resistant one
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