134 research outputs found

    Bayesian binary quantile regression for the analysis of Bachelor-Master transition

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    The multi-cycle organization of modern university systems stimulates the interest in studying the progression to higher level degree courses during the academic career. In particular, after the achievement of the first level qualification (Bachelor degree), students have to decide whether to continue their university studies, by enrolling in a second level (Master) programme, or to conclude their training experience. In this work we propose a binary quantile regression approach to analyze the Bachelor-Master transition phenomenon with the adoption of the Bayesian inferential perspective. In addition to the traditional predictors of academic outcomes, such as the personal characteristics and the field of study, different aspects of the student's performance are considered. Moreover, a new contextual variable, indicating the type of university regulations, is taken into account in the model specification. The utility of the Bayesian binary quantile regression to characterize the non-continuation decision after the first cycle studies is illustrated with an application to administrative data of Bachelor graduates at the School of Economics of Sapienza University of Rome and compared with a more conventional logistic regression approach.Comment: 24 pages, 7 figures and 3 table

    On the Lp-quantiles for the Student t distribution

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    L_p-quantiles represent an important class of generalised quantiles and are defined as the minimisers of an expected asymmetric power function, see Chen (1996). For p=1 and p=2 they correspond respectively to the quantiles and the expectiles. In his paper Koenker (1993) showed that the tau quantile and the tau expectile coincide for every tau in (0,1) for a class of rescaled Student t distributions with two degrees of freedom. Here, we extend this result proving that for the Student t distribution with p degrees of freedom, the tau quantile and the tau L_p-quantile coincide for every tau in (0,1) and the same holds for any affine transformation. Furthermore, we investigate the properties of L_p-quantiles and provide recursive equations for the truncated moments of the Student t distribution

    Large deviations for risk measures in finite mixture models

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    Due to their heterogeneity, insurance risks can be properly described as a mixture of different fixed models, where the weights assigned to each model may be estimated empirically from a sample of available data. If a risk measure is evaluated on the estimated mixture instead of the (unknown) true one, then it is important to investigate the committed error. In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of estimated risk measures, as the data sample size tends to infinity, in the fashion of large deviations. We obtain large deviation results by applying the contraction principle, and the rate functions are given by a suitable variational formula; explicit expressions are available for mixtures of two models. Finally, our results are applied to the most common risk measures, namely the quantiles, the Expected Shortfall and the shortfall risk measures

    Bayesian inference for CoVaR

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    Recent financial disasters emphasised the need to investigate the consequence associated with the tail co-movements among institutions; episodes of contagion are frequently observed and increase the probability of large losses affecting market participants' risk capital. Commonly used risk management tools fail to account for potential spillover effects among institutions because they provide individual risk assessment. We contribute to analyse the interdependence effects of extreme events providing an estimation tool for evaluating the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) defined as the Value-at-Risk of an institution conditioned on another institution being under distress. In particular, our approach relies on Bayesian quantile regression framework. We propose a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the Asymmetric Laplace distribution and its representation as a location-scale mixture of Normals. Moreover, since risk measures are usually evaluated on time series data and returns typically change over time, we extend the CoVaR model to account for the dynamics of the tail behaviour. Application on U.S. companies belonging to different sectors of the Standard and Poor's Composite Index (S&P500) is considered to evaluate the marginal contribution to the overall systemic risk of each individual institutio

    Joint estimation of conditional quantiles in multivariate linear regression models. An application to financial distress

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    This paper proposes a maximum-likelihood approach to jointly estimate marginal conditional quantiles of multivariate response variables in a linear regression framework. We consider a slight reparameterization of the Multivariate Asymmetric Laplace distribution proposed by Kotz et al (2001) and exploit its location-scale mixture representation to implement a new EM algorithm for estimating model parameters. The idea is to extend the link between the Asymmetric Laplace distribution and the well-known univariate quantile regression model to a multivariate context, i.e. when a multivariate dependent variable is concerned. The approach accounts for association among multiple responses and study how the relationship between responses and explanatory variables can vary across different quantiles of the marginal conditional distribution of the responses. A penalized version of the EM algorithm is also presented to tackle the problem of variable selection. The validity of our approach is analyzed in a simulation study, where we also provide evidence on the efficiency gain of the proposed method compared to estimation obtained by separate univariate quantile regressions. A real data application is finally proposed to study the main determinants of financial distress in a sample of Italian firms

    Quantile and expectile copula-based hidden Markov regression models for the analysis of the cryptocurrency market

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    The role of cryptocurrencies within the financial systems has been expanding rapidly in recent years among investors and institutions. It is therefore crucial to investigate the phenomena and develop statistical methods able to capture their interrelationships, the links with other global systems, and, at the same time, the serial heterogeneity. For these reasons, this paper introduces hidden Markov regression models for jointly estimating quantiles and expectiles of cryptocurrency returns using regime-switching copulas. The proposed approach allows us to focus on extreme returns and describe their temporal evolution by introducing time-dependent coefficients evolving according to a latent Markov chain. Moreover to model their time-varying dependence structure, we consider elliptical copula functions defined by state-specific parameters. Maximum likelihood estimates are obtained via an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The empirical analysis investigates the relationship between daily returns of five cryptocurrencies and major world market indices.Comment: 35 pages, 6 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2301.0972
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